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The Entire Estate was Swallowed Up by Lawyer’s Fees

Love is often nothing but a favorable exchange between  two people who get the most of what they can expect, considering their value on the personality market. The story of Charlie Brown is absurdly simple, but you can become familiar with game trees by casting that story in such a picture. Start the game when Lucy has issued her invitation, and Charlie faces the decision of whether to accept. If Charlie refuses, that is the end of the game. If he accepts, Lucy has the choice between letting Charlie kick and pulling the ball away. We can show this by adding another fork along this road. As we said earlier, Charlie should forecast that Lucy will choose the upper branch which includes pulling the ball away, not letting Charlie kick it. Therefore he should figuratively prune the lower branch (letting him kick it) of her choice from the tree. Now if he chooses his own upper branch, it leads straight to a nasty fall. Therefore his better choice is to follow his own lower branch which would be to reject the ball. For any game with a finite number of sequential moves there exists some best strategy. Of course, just because a best strategy exists does not mean that we can easily find it. Love is considered a game by some, but is also a strategy, much like business. Different negotiations take place under differing rules. In most retail stores the sellers post a price and the buyers’ only choice is to accept the price or to take their business elsewhere. Some shoppers seem to be able to bargain anywhere (even including Sears). Generally, shopping tends to be a “take-it-or-leave-it” rule. #RandolphHarris 1 of 21

In the case of wage bargaining, a labour union makes a claim and then the company decides whether to accede. If it does not, it may make a counteroffer, or wait for the union to adjust its demand. In some cases the sequencing is imposed by law or custom; in others it may have a strategic role of its own. An essential feature of negotiations is that time is money. When negotiations become protracted, the pie begins to shrink. Still, the parties may fail to agree, each hoping that the costs of negotiating will be outweighed by a more favorable settlement. Charles Dicken’s Bleak House illustrates the extreme case; the dispute over the Jarndyce estate was so prolonged that the entire estate was swallowed up by lawyer’s fees. In the same vein, if failure to reach a wage agreement leads to a labour strike, the firm loses profits and workers lose their wages. If nations enter into a prolonged round of negotiations to liberalize trade, they forgo the benefits of the enlarged trade while they are arguing about the division of the gains. The common thread is that all parties to the negotiations prefer to reach any given agreement sooner rather than later. World War II saw the beginning of the end of classical industrial-age colonialism. Having culminated in 1945, that war is fast fading from memory, but it may help put today’s World in perspective to not that nothing since then can remotely compare with the destruction it caused—or the economic changes to which it led. #RandolphHarris 2 of 21

World War II casualties suffered by more than two dozen countries, including the United States of America, totaled at least 50 million. Take a deep breath to absorb that number. It is as though 3,226 tsunamis equal in force to the one that devastated Japan in 2011 hit the World within six years. Or a tsunami roughly every day for six years. Russia—then still the Soviet Union—alone lost at least 21 million people. Germany, succeeded to the war, lost more than 5 million, not counting the additional millions of lives lost in death camps. Many of Western Europe’s industries were destroyed. War’s end saw hunger and chaos across much of Europe. At the opposite end of the World, Japan lost about 2.5 million before its surrender. In Japan, too, key industries such as coal, iron, steel and fertilizer were reduced to rubble. In all these regions it was as if the industrial revolution had been rolled back in time. Mass destruction had smashed the means of mass production. In contrast to the other major warring nations, the United States of America lost fewer than 300,000 troops and virtually no civilians. Its infrastructure was not bombed, which lift it at war’s end the only industrialized nation with a fully functioning economy and no significant competition. Three years after the shooting stopped, the United States—today’s imperial power—did a very strange thing. #RandolphHarris 3 of 21

Rather than demanding reparations from Germany and literally carting off any of its remaining factory equipment, railcars and industrial machinery, as Soviet Russia did, and rather than reveling in the weakness of its competitors, the United States of America launched what came to be known as the Marshall Plan. Under its aegis, the United States of America, in four short years, pumped $13 billion into Europe—including $1.5 billion to West Germany—to reconstruct production capabilities, strengthen currencies and get trade moving again. Japan, under other programs, received $1.9 billion in U.S.A. aid, 59 percent for food and 27 percent in the form of industrial supplies and transportation gear. Winston Churchill, Britain’s great wartime leader, called the Marshall Plan the “most unsordid act in history.” Yet these programs of support for allies and enemies alike were hardly charitable. They were part of a long-term U.S.A. economic strategy that worked. The Marshall Plan helped restore markets for U.S.A. goods. It helped prevent the reversion of Germany to Nazism. And above all, U.S.A. aid saved Western Europe and Japan from falling into the icy grip of the Soviet Union. It put them both back in business. It was, in retrospect, one of the smartest investments in history. As for imperialism, by war’s end Moscow had gained military and political control of all the Eastern European countries. In each it implanted troops and Communist puppet regimes, and it threatened to do the same in Western Europe where Soviet-supported Communist parties, especially in France and Italy, claimed broad popular support. #RandolphHarris 4 of 21

In doing so, the Soviet had created a vast region—stretching from Vladivostok all the way to Berlin—whose centrally planned economies, with inconvertible currencies and many other barriers, deliberately split 10 percent of the World population away from the rest of the World economy. By 1949, China had joined the Communist bloc. That but another 22 percent of the World’s people out of the larger global economy. By the mid-1950s, as the wealth revolution began, fully a third of the World’s people were largely off-limits to the rest of the planet in terms of trade and finance. At the same time, Africa, Latin America and South Asia were utterly impoverished, with some regions going through the turbulent, often violent process of decolonization as their European masters pulled out. In the early 1950s, therefore, the United States alone, with just 6 percent of the World’s people, was turning out nearly 30 percent of global GDP, and fully half its manufacturing. And it faced little competition. In the typical negotiation process, the pie shrinks slowly so that there will be time for many offers and counteroffers before the pie disappears. What this suggests is that it usually does not matter who gets to make the first offer given a long bargaining horizon. The split-the-difference solution seems pretty hard to escape unless the negotiations have been deadlocked for a long time and there is hardly anything left to win. #RandolphHarris 5 of 21

It is true that the person who goes last can get everything that remains. However, by the end of the negotiations process there is hardly anything left to win. Getting all of nothing is winning the battle and losing the war. My enemy’s ememy’s enemy is not my friend. A more realistic scenario would take account of the complicated relationships between the countries and provide more detail about their willingness to attack each other. Yet, there is an important observation that carries forward: the outcome of games depends critically on how many people are playing. More may be better and then worse, even in the same game. The observation that two antagonistic countries make unstable neighbours but three antagonists restores stability does not imply that four is even better; four in this case is the same as two. When considering Charlie Brown’s problem of whether or not to kick the football, this question became a real issue for football coach Tom Osborne in the final minutes of his championship game. We think he too got it wrong. Backward reasoning will reveal the mistake. When making a negotiation, even though the chance may be diminished, something is better than nothing. The momentum argument is also flawed. One of the general morals is that if you have to take some risks, it is often better to do this as quickly as possible. This is obvious to those who play tennis: everyone knows to take risks on the fist serve and hit the second serve more cautiously. That way, if you fail on your first attempt, the game will not be over. You may still have time to take some other options tht can bring you back to or even ahead of where you were. #RandolphHarris 6 of 21

As the first factories began to appear in the United States of America, a totally different work regimen came into being, at first affecting a tiny fraction of the population, then spreading as agricultural labour declined and industrial work expanded. The urban industrial worker in a Second Wave society might be freer socially in the great, teeming anonymity of the urban slum. However, the factory itself, life was more tightly regimented. Brute technology was designed for illiterates—which most of our ancestors were. Intended to amplify human muscle power, it was heavy, rigid, and capital-intensive. Before the invention of small electric motors, the machines were typically positioned all in a row and driven by overhead belts that set the pace for the whole factory. Later came the mechanical conveyor line that compelled armies of workers to perform motions in sync, chaining them to the production system. It is no accident that the French term for “assembly line” is chaine or that everyone, from the manual labourer to the topmost managers, operated in a “chain of command.” Work was “de-skilled” or dumped-down, standardized, broken into the simplest operations. And as white-collar work spread, offices were organized along parallel lines. Because they were not harnessed to an assembly line, clerical employees had a bit more physical freedom of movement. However, the goal of management was to increase efficiency in the office by making it resemble the factory as much as humanly—or inhumanly—possible. #RandolphHarris 7 of 21

The smokestack factories and mills were severely criticized for their dehumanization of the worker. However, even the most radical thinkers of the time regarded them as “advanced” and “scientific.” Less commented on was a change in the police function. Instead of the family policing work and pressuring its members to perform, a new power structure—hierarchical management—came into being to enforce the new rules. This new Second Wave work regimen was at first bitterly resisted even by employers, who tried to keep the old agrarian system and to transplant it into the factory. Because families had long sweated together in the fields, early manufacturers hired whole families at once. However, this system, efficient in agriculture for 10,000 years, proved totally inefficient in the factory. In general, many senior citizens could not keep up with the machines. Several children had to be beaten and often manacled to prevent them from running off to play. Families arrived at different times, struggling in as thy had in the fields. Inevitably, the attempt to maintain a family production team in the new technological environment collapsed, and the smokestack regimen was imposed. The lesson became clear: You could not organize work around a steam engine or textile loom the way you did around a hoe or a team of oxen. A new technical environment required a different discipline—and a different structure of power to police and enforce it. #RandolphHarris 8 of 21

When we consider games played in life, neither player has the benefit of observing the other’s complicated move before making one’s own. Here, the interaction reasoning works not by seeing the other’s strategy but by seeing through it. For this, it is not enough simply to put yourself in you opponent’s shoes. What would you find if you did? You would only discover that your opponent is doing the same thing, that is, thinking what it must be like to be wearing your shoes. Each person has to place oneself simultaneously in both his own and the other guy’s shoes and then figure out the best moves for both sides. Instead of a linear chain of reasoning, there is a circle that goes “If I think that he thinks that I think…” The trick is to square the circle. Not surprisingly, Sherlock Holmes and his arch-rival Professor Moriarty, the Napoleon of crimes, were masters of this type of reasoning. As Holmes told Watson in The Final Problem: “All that I have to say has already crossed your mind,” said he. “Then possibly my answer has crossed yours,” I replied. You must see through all the interlocking but invisible strategies. The first way is one must not regard the unknown actions of the other players as being uncertain in an impersonal way like the weather. And keep in mind, acts are judged by their consequences alone. In general, a player has a dominant strategy when one has one course of action that outperforms all others no matter what the other players do. No moral value is placed on the act itself. Even though an individual is already mortally wounded, one might not want to take responsibility for the act that causes the death of this individual. #RandolphHarris 9 of 21

If you have a dominant strategy, use it. Do not be concerned about your rival’s choice. If you do not have a dominant strategy, but your rival does, then anticipate that he or she will use it, and choose your best response accordingly. However, care must be taken in using it if moves are sequential. If you move first, your rival’s move is not given. One will observe your choice when one makes his or her, and you have the opportunity to influence the other players behaviour. In some circumstances this may best be done by choosing something other than your dominant strategy. In school language it is said on the subject of the struggle with negative emotions: Man must sacrifice his suffering. “What could be easier to sacrifice?” everyone will say. However, in reality people would sacrifice anything rather than their negative emotions. There is no pleasure and no enjoyment man would not sacrifice for quite small reasons, but he will never sacrifice his suffering. And in a sense there is a reason for this. In a quite superstitious way man expects to gain something by sacrificing his pleasures, but he cannot expect anything for sacrifice of his sufferings. He is full of wrong ideas about suffering—he still thinks that suffering is sent to him by God or by gods for his punishment or for his edification, and he will even be afraid to hear of the possibility of getting rid of his suffering in such a simple way. #RandolphHarris 10 of 21

The idea is made even more difficult by the existence many sufferings which man really cannot get rid of, and of many other sufferings which are entirely based on man’s imagination, which one cannot and will not give up, like the idea of injustice, for instance, and the belief in the possibility of destroying injustice. Besides that, many people have nothing but negative emotions. All their “I’s” are negative. If you wee to take negative emotions away from them, they would simply collapse and go up in smoke. And what would happen to all our life, without negative emotions? What would happen to what we call art, to the theater, to drama, to most novels? Unfortunately there is no chance of negative emotions disappearing. Negative emotions can be conquered and can disappear only with the help of school knowledge and school methods. The struggle against negative emotions is a part of school training and is closely connected with all school work. What is the origin of negative emotions if they are artificial, unnatural, and useless? As we do not know the origin of man we cannot discuss this question, and we can speak about negative emotions and their origin only in relation to ourselves and our lives. For instance, in watching children we can see how they are taught negative emotions and how they learn themselves through imitation of grownups and older children. If, from the earliest days of his life, a child could be put among people who have no negative emotions, he would probably have none, or so very few that they could be easily conquered by right education. #RandolphHarris 11 of 21

However, in actual life things happen quite differently, and with the help of all the examples one can see and hear, with the help of reading, the cinema, and so on, a child of about ten already knows the whole sale of negative emotions and can imagine them, reproduce them, and identify with them as well as any grown-up man. In grown-up people negative emotions are supported by the constant justification and glorification of them in literature and art, and by personal self-justification and self-indulgence. Even when we become tired of them we do not believe that we can become quite free from them. In reality, we have much more power over negative emotions than we think, particularly when we already know how dangerous they are and how urgent is the struggle with them. However, we find too many excuses for them and swim in the seas of self-pity r selfishness, as the case may be, finding fault in everything except ourselves. This shows that we are in a very strange position in relation to our emotional center. It has no positive part, and no negative part. Most of its negative functions are invented; and there are many people who have never in their lives experienced any real emotion, so completely is their time occupied with imaginary emotions. So we cannot say that our emotional center is divided into two parts, positive and negative. We can only say that we have pleasant emotions and unpleasant emotions, and that all of them which are not negative at a given moment can turn into negative emotions under the slightest provocation or even without any provocation. #RandolphHarris 12 of 21

This is the true picture of our emotional life, and if we look sincerely at ourselves we must realize that so long as we cultivate and admire in ourselves all these poisonous emotions we cannot expect to be able to develop unity, consciousness, or will. If such development were possible, then all these negative emotions would enter into our new being and become permanent in us. This would mean that it would be impossible for us ever to get rid of them. Luckily for us, such a thing cannot happen. In our present state the only good thing about us is that there is nothing permanent in us. If anything becomes permanent in our present state, it means insanity. Only lunatics can have a permanent ego. Incidentally this fact disposes of another false term that crept into the psychological language of the day from the so-called psychoanalysis: I mean the word “complex.” There is nothing in our psychological makeup that corresponds to the idea of the “complex.” In the psychiatry of the nineteenth century, what is now called a “complex” was called a “fixed idea,” and “fixed ideas” were taken as signs of insanity. And that remains perfectly correct. Normal man cannot have “fixed ideas,” “complexes,” or “fixations.” It is useful to remember this in case someone tries to find complexes in you. We have many bad features as it is, and our chances are very small even without complexes. #RandolphHarris 13 of 21

In any events, the virtues of adopting the ascent of humanity as a scaffolding on which to build a curriculum are many and various, especially in our present situation. For one thing, with a few exceptions, it does not require that we invent new subjects or discard old ones. The structure of the subject-matter curriculum that exists in most schools at present is entirely usable. For another, it is a theme that can begin in the earliest grades and extend through college in ever-deepening and -widening dimensions. Better still, it provides students with a point of view from which to understand the meaning of subjects, for each subject can be seen as a battleground of sorts, an arena in which fierce intellectual struggle has take place and continues to take place. Each idea within a subject marks the place where someone fell and someone rose. Thus, the ascent of humanity is an optimistic story, not without its miseries but dominated by astonishing and repeated victories. From this point of view, the curriculum itself may be seen as a celebration of human intelligence and creativity, not a meaningless collection of diploma or college requirements. Best of all, the theme of the ascent of humanity gives us a nontechnical, noncommerical definition of education. It is a definition drawn from an honourable humanistic tradition and reflects a concept of the purposes of academic life that goes counter to the biases of the technocrats. #RandolphHarris 14 of 21

I am referring to the idea that to become educated means to become aware of the origins of knowledge and knowledge systems; to be familiar with the intellectual and creative processes by which the best that has been thought and said has been produced; to learn how to participate, even if as a listener, in the metaphor for what is meant by the ascent of humanity from the mud to the tower. You will come to understand that the sheer number of great works that have contributed to the western canon is unrivaled. No cultural dialogue in any other civilization can compare with that of the West. The goal toward which Western society moves is the Civilization of the Dialogue. The spirit of Western civilization is the spirit of inquiry. Its dominant element is the Logos. Nothing is to remain undiscussed. Everybody is to speak one’s mind. No proposition is to be left unexamined. The exchange of ideas is held to be the past to the realization of the potentialities of the human race. Western culture is idea-centered and coherence-centered. It is also otherworldly, inasmuch as it does not assume that what one learns in school must be directly and urgently related to a problem of today. In other words, it is an education that stresses history, the scientific mode of thinking, the disciplined use of language, a wide-ranging knowledge of the arts and religion, and the continuity of human enterprise. It is the education as an excellent corrective to the antihistorical, information-saturated, technology-loving character of Technopoly. #RandolphHarris 15 of 21

To remain ignorant of things that happened before you were born is to remain a child. It is enough to say that history is our most potent intellectual means of achieving a “raised consciousness.” History is not merely one subject among many that may be taught; every subject has a history, including biology, physics, mathematics, literature, music, and art. Every teacher must be a history teacher. To teach, for example, what we know about biology today without also teaching what we once knew, or thought we knew, is to reduce knowledge to a mere consumer product. It is to deprive students of a sense of the meaning of what we know, and of how we know. To trach about the atom without Democritus, to tech about electricity without Faraday, to teach about political science without Aristotle or Machiavelli, to tech about music without Haydn, is to refuse our students access to The Great Conversation. It is to deny them knowledge of their roots, about which no other social institution is at present concerned. For to know about your roots is not merely to now where your grandfather came from and what he had to endure. It is also to know where your ideas come from and why you happen to believe them; to know where your moral and aesthetic sensibilities com from. It is to know where your World, not just your family, comes from. To complete the presentation of Cicero’s thought, “What is a human life worth unless it is incorporated into the lives of one’s ancestors and set in an historical context?” By “ancestors” Cicero did not mean your mother’s aunt. #RandolphHarris 16 of 21

Thus, every subject should be taught as history. In this way, children, even in the earliest grades, can begin to understand, as they now do not, that knowledge is not a fixed thing but a stage in human development, with a past and a future. To return for a moment to theories of creation, we want to be able to show how an idea conceived almost four thousand years ago has traveled not only in time but in meaning, from science to religious metaphor to science again. What a lovely and profound coherence there is in the connection between the wondrous speculations in an ancient Hebrew desert tent and the equally wondrous speculations in a modern MIT classroom! What I am trying to say is that the history of subjects teaches connections; it teaches that the World is not created anew each day, that everyone stands on someone else’s shoulders. This approach to subjects may be difficult to use. There are, at present, few texts that would help very much, and teachers have not, in any case, been prepared to know about knowledge in this way. Moreover, there is the added difficulty of our learning how to do this for children of different ages. However, that it needs to be done is beyond question. The teaching of subjects as studies in historical continuities is not intended to make history as a special subject irrelevant. If every subject is taught with a historical dimension, the history teacher will be free to teach what histories are: hypotheses and theories about why change occurs. In one sense, there is no such thing as “history,” for every historian from Thucydides to Toynbee has known that his stories must be told from a special point of view that will reflect one’s particular theory of social development. #RandolphHarris 17 of 21

And historians also know that they write histories for some particular purpose—more often than not, either to glorify or to condemn the present. There is no definitive history of anything; there are only histories, human inventions which do not give us the answer, but give us only those answers called forth by the questions that have been asked. Historians know all of this—it is a commonplace ide among them. Yet it is kept a secret from our youth. Their ignorance of it prevents the from understanding how “history” can change and why the Russians, Chinese, American Indians, and virtually everyone else see historical events differently than the authors of history schoolbooks. The tsk of the history teacher, then, is to become a “histories teacher.” This does not mean that some particular version of the American, European, African, nor Asian past should remain untold. A student who does not know at least one history is in no position to evaluate others. However, it does mean that a histories teacher will be concerned, at all times, to show how histories are themselves products of culture; how any history is a mirror of the conceits and even metaphysical biases of the culture that produced it; how the religion, politics, geography, and economy of a people lead them to re-create their past along certain lines. The histories teacher must clarify for students the meaning of “objectivity” and “events,” must show what a “point of view” and a “theory” are, must provide some sense of how histories may be evaluated. #RandolphHarris 18 of 21

Today, telecommunications systems have sharply limited capacity and are expensive to expand. Molecular manufacturing will drop the price of the “boxes” in telecommunications systems—things such as switching systems, computers, telephones, and even the glorious videophone. Cables made of smart materials can make these devices easy to install and easy to connect together. Regulatory agencies willing, you might someday be able to buy inexpensive spools of material resembling kite string, and other spools of material resembling tape, then use them to join a World data network. Either kind of strand can configure its core into a good-quality optical fiber, with special provisions for going around bends. When rubbed together, pieces of strong will fuse together, or fuse to a piece of tape. Pieces of tape do likewise. To hook up to the network, you run strong or tape from your telephone or other data terminal to the nearest point that is already connected. If you live deep in a tropical rain forest, run a string to the village satellite link. These data-cable materials include amplifiers, nanocopmputers, switching nodes, and the rest, and they come loaded with software that “knows” how to act to transit data reliably. If you are worried that a line may break, run three in different directions. Even one line could carry far more data than all the channels in a television put together. Getting around quickly requires vehicles and somewhere for them to travel. The old 1950s vision of private helicopters would be technically possible with inexpensive, high-quality manufacturing, cheap energy, and a bit of improvement in autopilots and air-traffic control—but will people really tolerate that much technology roaring across the sky? Fortunately, there is an alternative both to this and to building even-more roads. #RandolphHarris 19 of 21

When it comes to recombination mechanisms, which ensure that two DNA double helices undergo an exchange reaction only if they contain an extensive region of sequence similarity (homology); unless copying errors are also occurring, selection only alters the relative frequencies of existing types. However, there are endogenous mechanisms that do create new types. In biology, one of the most important is crossover, a process of recombining genetic contributions from each of two parents. This mechanism creates novel types, but with a method vastly different from mutation. Crossover works by splicing together pieces of already viable genetic material instead of making changes at random and so is far more likely to yield an improvement than is a mutation. In has long been noted that self-conscious activities of deliberate invention have similar properties. This can be seen in early forms of inventions, such as the motor and wagon combinations of the first “horseless carriages.” In designing their aircraft, the Wright brothers defined subproblems that could be independently attacked. Solutions to the power source problem and alternative wing designs could then be recombined in various ways. As in the biological analog, these conceptual recombinations have much higher chances of being valuable new types than would random changes of design. Constraint relaxation is another such mechanism, frequently practiced in human problems solving. It seeks solutions to a hard problem by generating variants that violate some one of the situation’s constraints. #RandolphHarris 20 of 21

Constraint relaxation introduces new variants by starting with materials of established feasibility and modifying them. A nice example is the one-opening kettle, which was achieved by relaxing the constraint that kettles needed a wide hole for filling and a narrow one for pouring. Presumably, many kettle designers thought: “What if we only had one opening?” Once faucets became common for filling, instead of ladles, the two-hole constraint could be relaxed, achieving a good design that is less expensive to manufacture. In crossover, conceptual recombination, and constraint relaxations, we have examples of mechanisms that can both create new types and change relative frequencies. We will use the general label recombining mechanism for them. Because they work with portions of strategies or agents already in use, they introduce new types by an endogenous process that has some degree of correlation with the system’s other conditions. This contrasts with the exogenous sources of new types that arise from errors and random disruptions. Recombining mechanisms implicitly leverage performance criteria in their creation of new agent or strategy from those that are already succeeding. This advantage over random variation explains why they are so commonly found in Complex Adaptive Systems. Keep in mind, as far as we know, no one has yet every come back from the other World. I cannot console you, but one thing I can tell you, as long as my ideals are alive I will be alive. By contemplating one’s end, one eventually feels purified and delivered from one’s baser self, from material things, and from other humans, as well as from fear and hatred of one’s fellow man. #RandolphHarri 21 of 21

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No Technological Fix Can Solve the Long-Term Problem of Population Growth

Closely related to the problem of exploitation and use, even though even more complicated, is the problem of authority in the twenty-first century man. Authority refers to an interpersonal relation in which one person looks upon another as someone superior to one. When we consider time, the difference is again either between the instinctive and the intellectual centers or between the moving and the intellectual. However, we are so accustomed to these phenomena that we rarely think how strange and incomprehensible they are. Of course, for a man who have never thought about himself and never tried to study himself, there is nothing strange in this or in any thing else. However, in reality, from the point of view of ordinary physiology, these phenomena look almost miraculous. A physiologist knows how many complicated processes must be gone through between swallowing cranberry juice or a glass of water and feeling its effects. Every substance entering the body by the way of mouth has to be analyzed, tried in several different ways, and only then accepted or rejected. And all this happens in one second or less. It is a miracle, and at the same time it is not. For, it we know the difference in the speed of centers and remember that the instinctive center, which has to do this work, has 30,000 times more time than the intellectual center by which we measure our ordinary time, we can understand how it may happen. It means that the instinctive center has not one second, but about eight hours of its own time for this work, and in eight hours this work can certainly be done in an ordinary laboratory without any unnecessary haste. So our idea of the extraordinary speed of this work is purely an illusion which we have because we think that our ordinary time, or the time of the intellectual center, is the only time which exists. #RandolphHarris 1 of 20

Therefore, time has a sense of authority. Now, we must try to understand another characteristic of centers in which will later give us very good material for self-observation and for work upon ourselves. It is supposed that each center is divided into two parts, positive and negative. This division is particularly clear in the intellectual center and in the instinctive center. All the work of the intellectual center is divided into two parts: affirmation and negation; yes and no. In every moment of out thinking, either one outweighs the other or they come to a moment of equal strength in indecision. The negative part of the intellectual center is as useful as the positive part, and any diminishing of the strength of the one in relation to the other results in mental disorders. In the work of the instinctive center the division is also quite clear, and both parts, positive and negative, or pleasant and unpleasant, are equally necessary for a right orientation in life. Pleasant sensations of taste, smell, touch, temperature, warmth, coolness, fresh air-all indicate conditions which are beneficial for life; and unpleasant sensations of bad taste, bad smell, unpleasant touch, feeling of oppressive heat or extreme cold, all indicate conditions which can be harmful to life. It may definitely be said that no true orientation in life is possible without both pleasant and unpleasant sensations. They are the real guidance of all animal life on the Earth and any defect in them results in a lack of orientation and a consequent danger of illness and death. Think how quickly a man would poison himself if he lost all sense of taste and smell, or if, in some unnatural way, he conquered in himself a natural disgust of unpleasant sensations. #RandolphHarris 2 of 20

In the moving center the division into two parts, positive and negative, has only a logical meaning; that is, movement as opposed to rest. It has no meaning for practical observation. In the emotional center, at a first glance, the division is quite simple and obvious. If we take pleasant emotions such as joy, sympathy, affection, self-confidence, as belonging to the positive part, and unpleasant emotions such as boredom, irritation, jealousy, envy, fear, as belonging to the negative part, things will look very simple; but in reality they are much more complicated. To begin with, in the emotional center there is no natural negative part. The greater part of negative emotions are artificial; they do not belong to the emotional center proper and are based on instinctive emotions which are quite unrelated to them but which are transformed by imagination and identification. This is the real meaning of the theory of James and Lange, at one time very well known. They insisted that all emotions were really sensations of changes in inner organs and tissues, changes which took place before sensations, and were the actual cause of sensations. That really meant that external events and inner realizations did not produce emotions. External events and inner realizations produced inner reflexes which produced sensations; and these were interpreted as emotions. At the same time, positive emotions such as “love,” “hope,” “faith,” in the sense in which they are usually understood—that is, as permanent emotions—are impossible for a man in the ordinary states of consciousness. They require higher states of consciousness; they require inner unity, self-consciousness, permanent “I,” and will. #RandolphHarris 3 of 20

Positive emotions are emotions which cannot become negative. However, all our pleasant emotions such as joy, sympathy, affection, self-confidence, can, at any moment, turn into boredom, irritation, envy, fear, and so on. Love can turn into jealousy or fear to lose what one loves, or into anger and hatred; hope can turn into daydreaming and the expectation of the impossible things, and faith can turn into superstition and a weak acceptance of comforting nonsense. Even a purely intellectual emotion—the desire for knowledge—or an aesthetic emotion—that is, a feeling of beauty or harmony—if it becomes mixed with identification, immediately unites with emotions of a negative kind such as self-pride, vanity, selfishness, conceit, and so on. So we can say without any possibility of mistake that we can have no positive emotions. At the same time, in actual fact, we have no negative emotions which exist without imagination and identification. Of course it cannot be denied that besides the many and varied kinds of physical suffering which belong to the instinctive center, man has many kinds of mental suffering which belong to the emotional center. He has many sorrows, griefs, fears, apprehensions, and so on which cannot be avoided and are as closely connected with man’s life as illness, pain, and death. However, these mental sufferings are very different from negative emotions which are based on imagination and identification. These emotions are a terrible phenomenon. They occupy an enormous place in our life. Of many people it is possible to say that all their lives are regulated and controlled, and in the end ruined, by negative emotion. #RandolphHarris 4 of 20

Negative emotions do not help out orientation, they do not give us any knowledge, they do not guide us in any sensible manner. On the contrary, they spoil all our pleasures, they make life a burden to us, and they very effectively prevent our possible development because there is nothing more mechanical in our life than negative emotions. Negative emotions can never come under our control. People who think they can control their negative emotions and manifest them when they want to, simply deceive themselves. Negative emotions depend on identification; if identification is destroyed in some particular case, they disappear. The strangest and most fantastic fact about negative emotions is that people actually worship them. I think that, for an ordinary mechanical man, the most difficult thing to realize is that hos own and other people’s negative emotions have no value whatever and do not contain anything noble, anything beautiful, or anything strong. In reality negative emotions contain nothing but weakness and very often the beginning of hysteria, insanity, or crime. The only good thing about them is that, being quite useless and artificially created by imagination and identification, they can be destroyed without any loss. And this is the only chance of escape that man has. If negative emotions were useful or necessary for any, even the smallest, purpose, and if they were a function of a really existing part of the emotional center, man would have no chance because no inner development is possible so long as man keeps his negative emotions. #RandolphHarris 5 of 20

In life we need to have great control of our emotions. When people are angry, they may not realize how unlike themselves they are being. The goal, therefore, is to prevent from becoming easy by using strategies. The general principle for sequential-moves in life is that each individual should figure out the other individuals’ future responses, and use them in calculating one’s own best current move. So important is this idea that it is worth codifying into a basic rule of strategic behaviour. Look ahead and reason back. Anticipate where your initial decisions will ultimately lead, and use this information to calculate your best choice. In the Charlie Brown story, this was easy to do for anyone (except Charlie Brown). He had just two alternatives, and one of them led to Lucky’s decision between two possible actions. Most strategic situations involve a longer-sequence of decisions with several alternatives at each, and mere verbal reasoning cannot keep track of them. Successful application of visual aid can be helpful in coming up with a plan. For instance, travelers from Princeton to New York have several choices. The first decision point involves selecting the mode f travel: bus, train, or car. Those who drive then have to choose among the Verrazano Narrows Bridge, the Holland Tunnel, the Lincoln Tunnel, and the George Washington Bridge. Rail commuters must decide whether to switch to the PATH train Newark or continue to Penn Station. Once in New York, rail and bus commuters must choose among going by foot, subway (local express), bus, or taxi to get to their final destination. The best choice depends on many factors, including price, speed, expected congestion, the final destination in New York, and one’s aversion to breathing the air on the Jersey Turnpike. #RandolphHarris 6 of 20

Drawing a road map would help. One which describes one’s options at each junction, looks like a tree with its successively emerging branches—hence the term “decision tree.” The right way to use such a map or a tree is not to take the route whose first branch looks best and then “cross the Verrazano Bridge when you get to it.” Instead, you anticipate the future decision and use them to make your earlier choices. For example, if you are commuting to the World Trade Center, the PATH train would be superior to driving because it offers a direct connection from Newark. We can use just such a tree to depict the choices in a life strategy, but one new element enters the picture. Life has many people and variables. At various branching points along the tree, it may be the turn of different players to make the decision. A person making a choice at an earlier point must look ahead, not just to one’s own future choices, but to those of others. One must forecast what the others will do, by putting oneself figuratively in their shoes, and thinking as they would think. General Electric (GE) makes electricity-distribution equipment in Salisbury, North Carolina. The plant is a model that GE wants to replicate at three hundred other factory locations. In the past, if a piece of equipment malfunctioned, a machine operator like Bob Hedenskog would have had to report it to his foreman and wait for help. #RandolphHarris 7 of 20

Today Hedenskog makes the necessary decisions himself. He telephones a GE engineer in Plainville, Connecticut, for advice and takes responsibility for repair. On his own initiative he has ordered $40,000 worth of replacement parts, which he anticipated his machinery would need. He is part of a group of about seventy-five employees who, through committees of their own, make production, scheduling, and even some hiring decisions. Together they have cut worker-hours per unit of production by two thirds, and have slashed the time to customer delivery by 90 percent. Some workers quit when this system was introduced, explaining that they did not want to carry the additional responsibility it entailed. However, employee turnover has fallen from 15 percent in the first year of the new system’s operation to 6 percent four years later. Similar stories are flowing in from all parts of the high-tech World. Ford Australia recently built its EA Falcon with an innovative work system that, contradicts the traditional Western way of assuring quality—namely, that management check the output of workers who are following engineers’ minutely detailed instructions. Ford concluded that detecting defects first and correcting them later was not working. Only by allowing workers more discretion—no longer preprogramming their every move—could the goal of zero defects be approached. And this means recognizing the power of the operators right down to the shop floor level. #RandolphHarris 8 of 20

At the Mazda Motor Manufacturing factory Huntsville, Alabama, ordinary plant workers get three weeks of training, including session on psychology. A small group of new hires are given six minutes to dream up twenty-five ideas on how to improve the common garden-variety bathtub, and then get only two minutes to come up with thirty more suggestions. Mazda is trying to loosen people up and unblock them. After the initial three weeks, workers spend additional weeks on more job-specific training. Mazda estimates it spends $15,000 to hire and train the average employee. These increasingly commonplace accounts underscore the historic shift currently taking place from “manufacture” to “mentifacture”—the progressive replacement of muscle by mind in the wealth creation process. However, by giving employees more say-so over the details of their work is only the tip of a more significant iceberg. To put this power shift into perspective, it is helpful to read the early history of the industrial revolution in England and Western Europe, and the complaints made by the earliest employers about the fecklessness, unreliability, drunkenness, and ignorance of the agrarian people from whom the early factor work force was drawn. Every society imposes it own distinct work discipline or “regimen.” Workers are supposed to obey certain rules, often unspoken. Their performance on the job is monitored, policed, and a structure of power is in place to enforce the rules. #RandolphHarris 9 of 20

If First Wave or agricultural societies, most peasants toiled endlessly, yet barely survived. This agrarian work force, organized into family production teams, followed a regimen set by the rhythms of season, sunrise, and sunset. If a peasant was absent or lazy, his own relatives disciplined him. They might ostracize him, beat him, or cut his food rations. The family itself was the dominant institution in society, and, exceptions aside, it imposed the work regimen. Its dominance over the individual family member was reinforced by social pressures from the villagers. Local elites might hold the power of life and death over the peasanty. Tradition might restrict social, pleasures of the flesh, and religions behaviour. The less affluent often suffered the cruelest hunger and poverty. And yet in their daily work lives they seemed less minutely restricted than those in the small but growing industrial labour force. The agrarian work regimen had lasted for millennia, and until only a century or two ago, the vast majority of human beings knew no other and assumed it to be the only logical and enteral way of organizing work. Even the most positive aspects of one’s work situation do not alter the fact that one’s work is alienated and only to a limited extent a meaningful expression of one’s energy and reason; furthermore, the trend for increasing automatization of industrial work diminishes this latter factor rapidly. Eventually, one is under the influence of our whole cultural apparatus, the advertisements, movies, television, newspapers, just as everybody else, and can hardly escape being driven into conformity, although perhaps more slowly than other sectors of the population. What holds true for the industrial worker holds true also for the farmer. #RandolphHarris 10 of 20

We describe a complex system, whether adaptive or not, as a population of agents. The agents are instances of various possible types. And the population has mechanisms that create, destroy, and transform the agents. Death is the most obvious transforming mechanism, destroying agents and possibly destroying a type if all its instances die, as happened to the dinosaurs. Birth creates new agents. Death and birth processes apply not only to biological entities but also to organizational entities such as companies and political units. In the simplest case, copying can be understood as the most primitive birth process. When it functions without error, the result is an increase in the frequency of one of the population types, whether the population is virus particles or documents. Copying is seldom perfect, however, although in the realm of digital technology it can now come very close. In the genetic case, mutation is a copying error that serves as an important source of variety. It can function to create new types, as well as to alter the relative frequencies of existing types. It is striking that many kinds of Complex Adaptive Systems have mechanism that function similarly to genetic mutation. For example, temperature in systems in which the elements have energy levels, such as the annealing of metals, also functions to “mutate” arrangements of atoms into new configurations. Process errors in factories and laboratories can have this same impact of creating new types. The ink-jet principle was accidentally discovered when a research laboratory syringe malfunctioned. There are many other processes that introduce “noise” into operations of copying or re-creation, thereby producing variants that are sometimes highly novel. #RandolphHarris 11 of 20

These mechanisms tend to have certain properties in common. They introduce variation into a system from uncontrolled forces external to the system, such as radiation, external heat, or disruptions of quality control. As a result of the uncorrelated, exogeneous source of variation in types, most of the variants introduced into orderly systems by such processes are deleterious—with occasional small improvements and a sprinkling of very rare spectacular advances. Exploring for new possibilities by nearly random variation can therefore be expensive. In fact, random variation is even slower than enumerating all the possibilities, since random generation will add duplication. With ransom variation, you examine each piece in the haystack and put it back if not the needle, possibly to draw it again later. By contrast, there are a number of other mechanisms that produce new types or change in type frequencies in a more targeted, less random, fashion. They tend to be endogenous, triggered by events internal to the system in which they operate. In particular, selection creates copies of some agents or strategies from a population an eliminates copies of others. Simple selection has an important effect. Over time, it reduces the variety of types in a finite system, although in the beginning it may increase the relative frequency of some rare types. Neither copying nor deletion generates novel types (except through errors in copying). So when a personal computer manufacturer offers two models of its product, and consumers buy one enthusiastically, many new copies of the preferred design will be made. This is a kind of selection process. It will gradually result in the copies of the other design being a rare type in the product population, even though most of them may continue to function. If consumers abandon the machines of the less preferred design, their actions function like death in biological populations, reducing even further the relative frequency of that type. #RandolphHarris 12 of 20

When an athlete decides to greet fellow players with a “high five” instead of a traditional handshake, the choice of behaviour is a form of selection, in this case selection by imitation. The agent replaces a current strategy with a new one copied from the actions of another agent—perhaps an athlete who is highly admired. No new agents are created, but one changes type. A succession of similar decision will transform the culture of greeting in the athlete population. In selection mechanism there are criteria at work in determining what types are copied and what types are replaced. Consumers evaluate one version of a product as being more desirable than another version. Athlete do the same for greeting gestures. Such evaluations require some kind of attribution of credit, either explicit (“the product is highly rated by a consumer magazine”) or implicit (popular athletes use the new greeting). We will devote more attention to the attribution of credit later on, but now is a good time to point out the relationship between the attribution of credit and the level of variety. If the selection among types favours more common types, then a type with a slightly frequent edge can grow quickly to become predominant in the population. The convention examples of this dynamic are the competition between the DVD and the BlueRay systems, and the competition between the QWERTY and Dvorak keyboard arrangements. Economists often refer to the benefits that accrue to an individual user from the sheer numbers of other users as network externalities. #RandolphHarris 13 of 20

These examples illustrate their force in both accelerating convergence and reducing variety. When the type that is “in the lead” is best, and conditions are not changing, rapid convergence on standard is desirable. The convergence on a single type of video image player, or keyboard can unleash considerable benefits, especially where there are strong economies of scale. There can be more movies on video and more new computers introduced as a result. However, as we pointed out earlier, in changing conditions, or when types so far available are not the best possible, the loss of variety can become a serious problem. Intensive development of the possibilities inherent in BlueRay and Dvorak typing does not occur. New video player formats or keyboard layouts do not survive in the marketplace, even if they might be superior alternatives. In the industrial past, Britain, with an empire “on which the sun never set,” might buy cotton at depressed prices from one of its backward agrarian colonies—Egypt, say. It could ship the cotton to factories in Leeds or Lancaster, turn the cotton into clothes, then send these higher-value-added goods right back and sell them to Egyptians at artificially high process. The resultant “superporifts” were returned to England, where they helped finance additional factories. Britain’s great navy, troops and administrators protected its colonial markets from munity within and competition without. #RandolphHarris 14 of 20

Of course, this caricatures a far more complex process. However, a key to the imperial game was to keep the advanced technology of the time—textile factories, for example—in Leeds or Lancaster. Today, by contrast, as advanced economies become more knowledge-based, factories count for less. What increasingly matters is the knowledge on which they depend. Knowledge, however, does not stay put, as the growing Worldwide theft of intellectual property shows. And America, at least for now, is losing the fight to protect it. Nor is all economically valuable knowledge technological. Thus Alain Minc, the controversial former chairman of Le Monde, tears apart the view that the United States of America is anything like the Rome or Great Britain of the past. It is not an imperial power but, as he puts it, the first “World country.” And the mission of its universities, unlike that of Oxford and Cambridge, is not to train a national elite. It is, in his words, to transmit knowledge that would mode “the future leaders of the World.” Writing shortly before the post-9/11 tightening of U.S.A. immigration controls, Mnic points out that in the previous fifty years the number of foreign students in the United States of America multiplied seventeen times. He might have added that an increasing percentage of these now return home armed with the latest scientific and technological knowledge in fields as advanced as large-scale network integration, nanotechnology and genetics—not exactly what imperialists and neocolonialists were known for in the past. #RandolphHarris 15 of 20

Worldwide food production has been outpacing population growth, yet hunger continues. In recent years, famine has often had political roots, as in Ethiopia where the rulers aim to starve opponents into submission. Such problems are beyond a simple technological solution. To avoid getting headaches, we will also ignore the politics of farm price-support programs, which raise food prices while people are going hungry. All we can suggest here is a way to provide fresh food at lower cost with reduced environmental impact. For decades, futurists have predicted the coming of synthetic foods. Some sort of molecular-manufacturing process makes such things with lose costs, but to some they prefer natural grown food and produce. Most agriculture today is inefficient—an environmental disaster. Modern agriculture is famed for wasting water and polluting it with synthetic fertilizers, and for spreading herbicides and pesticides over the landscape. Yet the greatest environmental impact of agriculture is its sheer consumption of land. The prairies of the West disappeared under the plow, and the plowed lands are becoming subdivision for housing. Around the World, this trend continues. The technology of the ax, the fire, and the plow is chiefly responsible for the destruction of rain forests today. A growing population will tend to turn every productive ecosystem into some sort of farmland or grazing land, if we let it. No technological fix can solve the long-term problem of population growth. Nonetheless, we can roll back the problem of loss of land, yet increase food supplies. One approach is intensive greenhouse agriculture. #RandolphHarris 16 of 20

Every kind of plant has its optimum growing conditions, and those conditions are far different from those found in most farmland during most of the year. Plants growing outdoors face insect pests, unless doused with pesticide, and low levels of nutrient, unless doused with fertilizer. In greenhouses patrolled by “nanoflyswatters” able to eliminate invading insects, plants would be protected from pests and could be provided with nutrients without contaminating the groundwater or runoff. Most plants prefer higher humidity than most climates provide. Most plants prefer higher, more uniform temperatures than typically found outdoors. What is more, plants thrive in high levels of carbon dioxide. Only greenhouses can provide pest protection, ample nutrients, humidity, warmth, and carbon dioxide all together and without reengineering the Earth. Taken together, these factors make a huge difference in agricultural productivity. Experiments with intensive greenhouse agriculture, performed by the Environmental Research Lab in Arizona, show that an area of 250 square meters—about the size of a tennis court—can raise enough food for one person, year in and year out. With molecular manufacturing to make inexpensive, reliable equipment, the intensive labour of intensive agriculture can be automated. With technology like the deployable “tents” and smart materials we have described, greenhouse construction can be inexpensive. Following the standard argument, with equipment costs, labour costs, materials costs, and so forth all expected to be low, greenhouse-grown food can be inexpensive. #RandolphHarris 17 of 20

What does this mean for the environment? It means that the human race could feed itself with ordinary, naturally grown, pesticide-free foods while returning more than 90 percent of today’s agricultural land to wilds. With a generous five-hundred square meters per person, the U.S of A population would require only 3 percent of present U.S.A. farm acreage, freeing 97 percent for other uses, or for a gradual return to wilderness. When farmers are able to grow high-quality foodstuffs inexpensively, in fraction of the room that they require today, they will find more demand for their land to be tended as a park or wilderness than a cornfield. Farm journals can be expected to carry articles advising on techniques for rapid and aesthetic restoration of forest and grassland, and on how best to accommodate the desires of the discriminating nature lover and conservationist. Even “unpopular” land will tend to become popular with people seeking solitude. The economics of assembler-based manufacturing will remove the incentive to make greenhouses that are poor quality, unattractive, and boxy; the only reason to build that way today is the high cost of building anything at all. And while today’s greenhouses suffer from viral and fungal infestations, these could be eradicated from plants in the same way they would be from the human body.  A problem faced by today’s greenhouses—overheating—could be dealt with by using heat exchangers, thereby conserving the carefully balanced inside atmosphere. Finally, if it should turn out that a little bit of bad weather improves the taste of tomatoes, that, too, could be provided, since there would be no reason to be fanatical about sheer efficiency. #RandolphHarris 18 of 20

In consideration of the disintegrative power of Technopoly, perhaps the most important contribution schools can make to the education of our youth is to give them a sense of coherence in their studies, a sense of purpose, meaning, and interconnectedness in what they learn. Modern secular education is failing not because it does not teach who Sarah L. Winchester, William Randolph Hearst, and a thousand other people are but because it has no moral, social, or intellectual center. There is no set of ideas or attitudes that permeates all parts of the curriculum. The curriculum is not, in fact, a “course of study” at all but a meaningless hodgepodge of subjects. It does not even put forward a clear vision of what constitutes an educated person, unless it is a person who possesses “skills.” In other words, a technocrat’s ideal—a person with no commitment and no point of view but with plenty of marketable skills. Of course, we must not overestimate the capability of schools to provide coherence in the face of a culture in which almost all coherence seems to have disappeared. In our technicalized, present-centered information environment, it is not easy to locate a rationale for education, let alone impart one convincingly. It is obvious, for example, that the schools cannot restore religion to the center of the life of learning. With the exception of a few people, perhaps, no one would take seriously the idea that learning is for the greater glory of God. It is equally obvious that the knowledge explosion has blown apart the feasibility of such limited but coordinated curriculums as, for example, a Great Books program. #RandolphHarris 19 of 20

Some people would have us stress love of country as a unifying principle in education. Experience has shown, however, that this invariably translates into love of government, and in practice becomes indistinguishable from what still is at the center of Russian and Chinese education. Some would put forward “emotional health” as the core of the curriculum. I refer here to a point of view something called Rogerian, sometimes Maslovian, which values above all else the development of one’s emotional life through the quest for one’s “real self.” Such an idea, of course, renders a curriculum irrelevant, since only “self-knowledge”—id est, one’s feelings—is considered worthwhile. Carl Rogers himself once wrote that anything that can be taught is probably either trivial or harmful, thus making any discussion of the schools unncecessary. However, beyond this, the culture is already so heavy with the burden of the glorification of “self” that it would be redundant to have the schools stress it, even if it were possible. However, it is humanity’s destiny to possession an ability to discovery of knowledge. Moreover, the arts and humanities must be part of our unending quest to gain a unified understanding of nature and our place in it. Thus, to chart the ascent of man called “the ascent of humanity,” we must join art and science. However, we must also join the past and the present, for ascent of humanity is above all a continuous story. It is, in fact, a story of creation, although not quite the one that the fundamentalists fight so fiercely to defend. It is the story of humanity’s creativeness in trying to conquer loneliness, ignorance, and disorder. And it certainly includes the development of various religious systems as a means of giving order and meaning to existence. In this context, it is inspiring to note that the Biblical version of creation, to the astonishment of everyone except possibly the fundamentalists, has turned out to be a near-perfect blend of artistic imagination and scientific intuition: the Big Bang theory of the creation of the Universe, now widely accepted by cosmologists, confirms in essential details what the Bible proposes as having been the case “in the beginning.” #RandolphHarris 20 of 20

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I Know Good and Well what You are Up to, that Book You Got is Infmaous

If you listen, you can hear the sound of the Kingdom of God in the air as no generation has ever before. Economic differences, however, are not as important as they may seem. The “good time” of society’s upper strata is the fun model for those not yet able to pay for it while earnestly hoping for that happy eventuality—and the “good time” of the less affluent strata is increasingly more surrounded around family and home entertainment. There can sometimes be differing costs from the affluent, but the quality may be very similar. Variation provides the raw material for adaption. However, for an agent or population to take advantage of what has already been learned, some limits have to be placed on the amount of variety in the system. This leads us to consider, what is the right balance between variety and uniformity. When considering the workings of major mechanisms that affect balance, we treat Complex Adaptive System as a population of agents, and we begin by assuming that the agents are not all the same. Indeed, the variety within a population is a central requirement for adaptation. The surprising dynamics that occur in complex systems are often consequences of such variety, as when a long-reigning political coalition collapses with the arrival of what seemed to be a minor new participant. And the novelty or innovation that we may want to encourage will often stem for such variety, as when ideas about unmet customer needs and ideas about new technical possibilities come together in the conception of the new product. #RandolphHarris 1 of 20

It is often tempting to assume that the agents of a system are basically all the same—all the birds in a flock, all the employees of a particular company, all the citizens of a foreign town. Such assumptions simplify subsequent analysis. So we mass-produce kitchen tables on the implicit assumption that the population of buyers are all about the same height. Manufacturers know this makes some problems for people who are actually very tall or very short, but ignoring those issues allows the manufacturers to attain production efficiencies without fears of incompatibility with standard chairs. If there are some resulting difficulties for end users, the seriously affected individuals can respond to them with custom modifications. Similarly, if an average family in a community has two children, it can be convenient for some analyses—say, of projected demand for schooling—to make forecasts by assuming that all families are the same. For many purpose, however, such an assumption would be a mistake. What if families of different ethnicity had different sizes? Then a change in neighbourhood ethnicity could change school demand even though the number of household remained constant. The designer of a new product, such as a video recorder or a bicycle, seeks a resign that most customers will use in conventional ways that will engender no usual problems. However, to design the product, its packing, and its instructions as though all its buyers will use it identically is generally not the best strategy. Designers need to anticipate multiple categories of use and then either target the new product to a single category or design it to meet multiple requirements. #RandolphHarris 2 of 20

The Complex Adaptive Systems approach, with its premise that agents are diverse, is well suited to design projects such as the video recorder and the bicycle. It builds in the default assumption that there is a variety within a population that could matter. Simplifications still can be made, of course. However, the issue of variation is at the forefront of the analysis rather than in the background. The actions available to policy maker and designers who want to shape the behaviour of a Complex Adaptive System often work not just by accommodating variety; they can also work by actually increasing (or decreasing) the variety of agents in the population, or the variety of product design ideas under discussion, or the ethnic variety of housing purchasers. Variety turns up repeatedly in complex systems as a crucial factor in their development. However, the situation is not always so simple as saying that homogeneity is bad and variety is good. In an ever-changing World, agents that are not currently best may be a resource for the future. Parts of them may be crucial at a later time. For example, monoculture takes a great risk by eliminating the genetic variety in a crop. Without genetic variety, the introduction of a new parasite can wreak havoc. Even if the environment is unchanging, if the vest agents in the population up to this moment are far from the best possible, variation in agents may be valuable. In both these cases when the World is changing or the current agents are far from the best possible, variety can have value, and homogeneity may be a hinderance. A designer or policy maker confronting a Complex Adaptive System should therefore ask a central question: What is the right balance for uniformity? #RandolphHarris 3 of 20

Focusing on variety in this way requires additional assistance to clear thought. Real families in a community or real product users can present wildly varying blends of characteristics. Some of these matter and some do not. Which characteristics matter is partly a function of what goals are being pursed. The variable heights of video recorder buyers are presumably not consequential. However, height could matter for a bicycle. Variation in ethnicity of buyers may not matter much for the design of a bicycle, but it may matter for the written instructions on how to program a new video recorder if variation in ethnicity entail differences in languages. When variety is significant, we need to be able to talk about subpopulations. We need to analyze their differences without losing track of the possibility that there are many other differences we are temporarily ignoring. Some of the potential buyers of our new video recorder may only want to play movies with it, while others might only want to record daytime shows for evening viewing. Some might be native speakers of Japanese. Some might know English as a second language. A type is a category of agents within the larger population who share some detectable combination of features. The notion of type facilitates the analysis of variety that our framework so often requires. Commonly, we distinguish types by some aspects of the agents’ properties or behaviours that are observable, either by other agents in the population or by outside analysts. #RandolphHarris 4 of 20

Examples of types: tall, average, or short customers for a consumer product; individuals who have not been infected by a particular virus, who have the symptoms of the disease, or who have recovered and are immune; molecules with a shape that matches a receptor on the surface of a group of biological cells, and molecules lacking that shape; viewers of a cable weather channel who are “forecast drop-ins,” “general-weather-interested,” or “storm obsessed”; invasive computer programs that are classified as “viruses,” “Trojans,” “droppers,” or “worms.” It is possible that some computer viruses may even be naturally manifested in outer space because of interferences from the electromagnetic field. Many type distinctions are endogenous—actively developed and used within the population by member agents themselves. In our disease example above, the general public may detect two types, the symptomatic and asymptomatic. Using these types, an individual agent may gain tremendously because its action can be conditional. Contacts with those who are obviously symptomatic can be avoided, significantly reducing the chances of acquiring the infection. However, notice that this works only if the individual can use symptoms to pick out those to be avoided while interacting with the rest. Rarely can a person make such discriminations perfectly. The symptoms a person can detect are, after all, only approximate indicators for the actual condition of other individuals. (Some with the flu may be trying valiantly to get through the day without appearing sick.) So the concept of detectably symptomatic individuals induces types in the population that are correlated with benefit to the individual, but not perfectly correlated. #RandolphHarris 5 of 20

The spread of the infectious microbe induces an observer of the system, such as a public health official, to subdivide the population into three types: those who have not been infected but can be, those infected, and those who have recovered and have immunity. Types are not given from on high but are defined by actors within the system. To take another example, police would like to pick out drivers they cannot be sure of that intoxication before an accident occurs. Blood levels of alcohol cannot be observed as traffic passes by. Erratic driving can be observed, so those cars can be stopped. Some stopped cars with a high-blood alcohol driver will pass by. The police officer’s test, erratic driving, divides the population into types, those who can be stopped and those who cannot. It predicts blood alcohol levels only imperfectly. For example, some drivers may perform unsafely with blood alcohol concentrations below the legal limit (which may cause the driver to be cited for driving under the influence, which can lead to them being arrested). Here we have a tangled set of categories used by the actors within the system. Each of the working categories (or type definitions) only approximates the issues of actual concern. Many examples of complex systems have the property that the population contains at least some agents, such as the disease-avoiders or police officers, whose actions are conditional on aspects of the other agents that they can detect. #RandolphHarris 6 of 20

At a border crossing the detection of a fraudulent passport can spell the difference between freedom and prison. This is an example of how a small difference related to a condition can or trigger a large difference in subsequent actions. For this reason, conditional action can result in consequences that are not smoothly proportional to causes, so-called nonlinear dynamics. So far we have used examples in which agents in the population or outside analysts employ similar distinctions to divide populations into types. Distinctions can also be made that are completely external to the population. They may be suggested because they correspond usefully to some differences in the population that matter, even though the actions of agents in the population may not necessarily be conditional on the differences. So, for example, a product designer might want to suggest that there could be two types of buyers for the proposed video recorder: perhaps “movie renters” and “time shifters.” The designer need not content that real consumers classify themselves this way. The distinction may be offered to highlight that these different kinds of users have different kinds of uses have different needs for the controls on the device. A pure movie watcher might have no need for the elaborate systems to program recording that begins and ends automatically, nor even for a clock. A pure time shifter might need those capabilities and many more. Designers might debate if these are useful types to distinguish, whether or not consumers make the proposed distinction themselves. #RandolphHarris 7 of 20

And though real consumers might rarely fall into one of the pure categories, the distinction may help designers think about the potential market. Perhaps they will want to consider introducing a cheaper, simplified machine that only plays prerecorded films. In the surprising World of contemporary consumer electronics, the low-end version might just be the full-featured machine with some features disabled. This can be a way of charging different types of customers different prices. Such price discrimination can rise profits even when the more cost-effective machines cost somewhat more to manufacture with turned-off features. Whether this will work requires designers and marketers to analyze the detailed pattern of consumer types. Here are the five important aspects to the notion of types: Types are generally defined by some detectable features of the agents in the population; many other dimensions of variety in the population may persist in the population without being recognized as types by the agents themselves; the features that distinguish types usually provide only an imperfect indicator for the actual differences in action among the agents in the population; types are often endogenous in complex system—agents within the population may detect types and act conditionally (and even change type definitions if the system is adaptive); and types can be exogenous as well—defined only in the minds of those analyzing a Complex Adaptive System the outside. The notion of type will help us to analyze the sources and contributions of variety by considering how systems create, destroy, and modify types. #RandolphHarris 8 of 20

Conduct a poll around the globe, and you will find a vast number of people who believe that America’s great wealth has been squeezed or stolen from the World’s poor. This assumption can often be found behind the slogans chanted by anti-American and anti-globalization protestors. However, the same questionable premise also lies behind a recent torrent of seemingly scholarly books and articles claiming that the United States of America is new Rome—the latest example of classical imperialism—or that it is, as the Chinese prefer to put it, the new hegemon. The problem with these analogies is that they do not fit the twenty-first century model of the United States of America. If America is such a rich and powerful hegemon, how come nearly 33 percent of the U.S. Treasury bonds were owned by other nations as of November 2022? Was that the case when Rome ruled much of the World, or when England did? Why has not the United States of America sent permanent settlers to the various countries that it presumably dominates? Rome did. The Spaniards did. The British, French, Germans and Italians did, all across Africa. The Japanese did in Asia. Exactly what America university trains an elite class of colonial administrator to spend their lives ruling over remote regions, as Oxford and Cambridge did? And where is there a clamour among Americans for a long-term military occupation of another country? The United States of America is powerful and surely makes its weight felt around the World. However, there is something wrong about the way America—and the World—is pictured and understood here. #RandolphHarris 9 of 20

Critics are still thinking in terms of the agrarian and industrial past. With the increased of knowledge-intensivity, the entire global game has different rules and different players. And so has the future of wealth. It a recurring theme in the cartoon strip “Peanuts,” Lucy holds a football on the ground and invites Charlie Brown to run up and kick it. At the last moment, Lucy pulls the ball away. Charlie Brown, kicking air, lands on his back, and this gives Lucy great perverse pleasure. Anyone could have told Charlie that he should refuse to play Lucy’s game. Even if Lucy had not played this particular trick on him last year (and the year before and the year before that), he knows her character from other contexts and should be able to predict her action. At the time when Charlie is deciding whether or not to accept Lucy’s invitation, her action lies in the future. However, just because it lies in the future does not mean Charlie should regard it as uncertain. He should know that of the two possible outcomes—letting him kick and seeing him fall—Lucky’s preference is for the latter. Therefore he should forecast that when the time comes, she is going to pull the ball away. The logical possibility that Lucy will let him kick the ball is realistically irrelevant. Reliance on it would be a sort of remarriage, a triumph of hope over experience. Charlie should disregard it, and forecast that acceptance will inevitably land him on his back. He should decline Lucy’s invitation. #RandolphHarris 10 of 20

The essence of a game of strategy is the interdependence of the players’ decisions. These interactions arise in two ways. The first is sequential, as in the Charlie Brown story. The players make alternative moves. Each player, when it is one’s turn, must look ahead to how one’s current actions will affect the future actions of others, and one’s own future actions in turn. The second kind of interaction is simultaneous, as in the prisoners’ dilemma tale we discussed in the past. The players act at the same time, in unenlightenment of the others’ current actions. However, each must be aware that there are other active players, who in turn are similarly aware, and so on. Therefore each must figuratively put oneself in the shoes of all, and try to calculate the outcome. One’s own best action is an integral part of this overall calculation. When you find yourself playing a strategic game, you must determine whether the interaction is simultaneous or sequential. Some gams such as football have elements of both. Then you must fit your strategy to the context. The story of Charlie Brown is a preliminary way of ideas and rules that will help one play sequential games. Stories are not for great importance in themselves, and the right strategies are usually easy to see by simple intuition, so the underling idea stand out that much more clearly. During the years spent working as a factory and foundry worker, we put in time on an auto assembly line. Even now, more than a third of a century later, it is impossible to forget what it felt like—especially the harrowing impact of the speedup. Every day, from the moment the bell started our shift, we workers raced to do our repetitive jobs while desperately trying to keep pace with the car bodies moving past us on the clanking, fast-jerking conveyor. #RandolphHarris 11 of 20

The company was forever trying to accelerate the line. Suppressed rage so filled the plant that every once in a while, for no apparent reason, an eerie wordless wail would issue from the throats of hundreds of workers, swell into a keening, ear-knifing sound as it was picked up and passed from department to department, then fade away into the clatter and roar of the machines. As the cars sped past we were supposed to prepare them for the paint shop, hammering out dents and dings, and grinding them smooth. However, the bodies flew by before we could do a good job. After they left us, they passed in front of inspectors who chalk-circled the remaining problems to be cleaned up afterward. Eight or ten hours a day of this was enough to numb us to any calls for “quality.” Somewhere there were “managers”—men in white shirts and ties. However, we had almost no contact with them. The power of these men in white shirts came not merely from our need for a paycheck, but from their superior knowledge about the factory, its goals, procedures, or plans. By contrast, we knew almost nothing about our job, except the few preprogrammed steps necessary to do it. Apart from exhortations to work harder, we received almost no information from the company. We were the last to find out if a shop or plant was to be closed down. We were given no information about the market or the competition. #RandolphHarris 12 of 20

We were told nothing about the new products soon to be introduced, or new machines. We were supposed to take on faith that our superiors knew that they were doing. We were expected to show up on time, work, keep our muscle moving and our mouths shut. Even with a strong union in place, we felt powerless. A faceless “they” had us in their power. They were the men in white shirts. Managers. We were, during our work shift, citizens of a totalitarian state. We are reminded of these experiences as reports arrive almost daily describing the newest plants now going up. For power is shifting in the workplace, and things will never be the same. Building large objects is basic to solving problems of housing and transportation. Smart materials can help. Today, buildings are expensive to construct, require a big-budget to replace, and high-cost to make fireproof, tornado-proof, earthquake-proof, and so forth. Making buildings tall is pricey; making walls soundproof is costly; building underground is exorbitant. Efforts to relieve city congestion often founder on the high cost of building subways, which can amount to hundreds of millions of dollars per mile. Building codes and political permitting, nanotechnology will make possible revolutions in the construction of buildings. Superior materials will make it easy to construct tall (or deep) buildings to free up land, and strong buildings that can ride out the greatest earthquake without harm. Buildings can be made so energy-efficient and so good at using the solar energy falling on them that most are not energy producers. #RandolphHarris 13 of 20

What is more, smart materials can make it easy to build and modify complex structures, such as walls full of windows, wiring, plumbing, data networks, and the like. For a concrete example that shows the principle, let us picture what smart pipes could be like. Let us say that you want to install a fold-down sink in the corner of your bedroom. The new materials make fold-down sinks practical, and in a house made of advanced smart materials, just sticking one on the wall would be enough—the plumbing would rearrange itself. However, this is an antiquated, pre-breakthrough house, so the sink is a retrofit. To do this home-handiwork project, you buy several boxes full of inexpensive tubing, T-joints, valves, and fixtures in a variety of sizes, all as light as wood veneer and feeling like soft rubber. The biggest practical problem will be to make a hole from an existing water pipe and drainpipe to where you want the sink. Molecular manufacturing can provide excellent power tools to make the holes, and smart pain and plaster to cover them again, but the details depend on how your house is built. The smart plumbing system does help, of course. If you want to run the brain line through the attic, built-in pumps will make sure that the water flows properly. The flexibility of the pipes makes it much easier to run them around curves and corners. Low-cost power makes it practical for the sink to have a flow-through water heater, so you only need to run a cold-water pipe to have both hot and cold water. All the parts go together as easily as a child’s blocks, and seem about as flimsy and likely to leak. When you turn it on, though, the microscopic components of the pipes lock together and become as strong as steel. And smart plumbing does not leak. #RandolphHarris 14 of 20

Smart plumbing is one example of a general pattern. Molecular manufacturing can eventually make complex products at low cost, and those complex products can be simpler to use than anything we have today, freeing our attention for other concerns. Buildings can become easy to make and easy to change. The basic conveniences of the modern World, and more, can be carried to the ends of the Earth and installed by the people there to suit their tastes. There are a hundred other things to remember that may help one to warm to the United States of America, including the fact that it has been, and perhaps always will be, a series of experiments that the World watches with wonder. Three such experiments are of particular importance. The fist, undertaken toward the end of the eighteenth century, posed the question, “Can a nation allow the greatest possible degree of political and religious freedom and still retain a sense of identity and purpose?” Toward the middle of the nineteenth century, a second great experiment was undertaken, posing the question, “Can a nation retain a sense of cohesion and community by allowing into it people from all over the World? And now comes the third—the great experiment of Technopoly—which poses the question, “Can a nation preserve its history, originality, and humanity by submitting itself totally to the sovereignty of a technological thought-World? If there is an awareness of and resistance to the dangers of Technopoly, there is a reason to hope that the United States of America may yet survive its Ozymandias-like hubris and technological promiscuity. Which brings me to the “resistance fighter” part of my principle. #RandolphHarris 15 of 20

 Those who resist the American Technopoly are people: who pay no attention to a poll unless they know what questions were asked, and why; who refuse to accept efficiency as the pre-eminent goal of human relations; who have freed themselves from the belief in the magical powers of numbers, do not regard calculation as an adequate substitute for judgement, or precision as a synonym for truth; who refuse to allow psychology or any “social science” to pre-empt the language and thought of common sense; who are, at least, suspicious of the idea of progress, and who do not regard the aged as irrelevant; who take seriously the meaning of family loyalty and honour, and who, when they “reach out and touch someone,” expect that person to be in the same room; who take the great narratives of religion seriously and who do not believe that science is the only system of thought capable of producing truth; who know the difference between the sacred and the profane, and who do not wink at tradition for modernity’s sake.; who admire technology ingenuity but do not think it represents the highest possible form of human achievement. A resistance fighter understands that technology must never be accepted at part of the natural order of things, that every technology—from an IQ test to an automobile to a television set to a computer—is a product of a particular economic and political context and carries with it a program, an agenda, and a philosophy that may or may not be life-enhancing and that therefore require scrutiny, criticism, and control. #RandolphHarris 16 of 20

In short, a technological resistance fighter maintains an epistemological and psychic distance from any technology, so that it always appears somewhat strange, never inevitable, never natural. I can say no more than this, for each person must decide how to enact these ideas. However, it is possible that one’s education may help considerably not only in promoting the general conception of a resistance fighter but in helping the young to fashion their own ways of giving it expression. Education is very important, but also so are political action and social policy in offering opposition to Technopoly. There are even now signs that Technopoly is understood as a problem to which laws and policies might serve as a response—in the environmental movement, in the contemplation of legal restrictions on computer technology, in a developing distrust of medical technology, in reactions against widespread testing, in various efforts to restore a sense of community cohesion. However, in the United States of America, whenever we need a revolution, we get a new curriculum. School, to be sure, is a technology itself, but of a special kind in that, unlike most technologies, it is customarily and persistently scrutinized, criticized, and modified. It is America’s principle instrument for correcting mistakes and for addressing problems that mystify and paralyze other social institutions. The center of gravity of the intellectual center is in the brain; the center of gravity of the emotional center is in the solar plexus; the centers of gravity of the moving and instinctive centers are in the spinal cord. It must be understood that in the present state of scientific knowledge we have no means of verifying this statement, chiefly because each center includes in itself many properties which are still unknow to ordinary science and even to anatomy. #RandolphHarris 17 of 20

It may sound strange, but the fact is that anatomy of the human body is far from being a completed science. So the study of centers, which are hidden from us, must begin with the observation of their functions, which are quite open for our investigation. This is quite a usual course. In the different sciences—physics, chemistry, astronomy, physiology—when we cannot reach the facts or objects or matters we wish to study, we have to begin with an investigation of their results or traces. In this case we shall be dealing with the direct functions of centers; so all that we establish about functions can be applied to centers. All the centers have much in common and, at the same time, each center has its own peculiar characteristics which must always be kept in mind. One of the most important principles that must be understood in relation to centers is the great difference in their speed, that is, a difference in the speeds of their functions. The slowest is the intellectual center. Next to it—although very much faster—stand the moving and instinctive centers, which have more or less the same speed The fastest of all is the emotional center, though in the state of “waking sleep” it works only very rarely with anything approximating to its real speed, and generally works with the speed of the instinctive and moving centers. Observations can help us to establish a great difference in the speeds of functions, but they cannot give us the exact figures. In reality the difference is very great, greater than one can imagine as being possible between functions of the same organism. #RandolphHarris 18 of 20

With our ordinary means we cannot calculate the difference in the speed of centers, but, if we are told what it is, we can find many facts which will confirm not the figures but the existence of the enormous difference. So before bringing in figures, I want to speak about ordinary observation which can be made without any special knowledge. Try, for instance, to compare the speed of mental processes with moving functions.  Try to observe yourself when you have to perform many quick simultaneous movements, as when driving a car in a very crowded street, or riding fast on a bad road, or doing any work requiring quick judgment and quick movements. You will see at once that you cannot observe all your movement. You will either have to slow them  down or miss the greater part of your observations; otherwise you will risk an accident and probably have one if you persist in observing. There are many similar observations which can be made, particularly on the emotional center, which is still faster. Every one of us really has many observations on the different speeds of our functions, but only very rarely do we know the value of our observations and experiences. Only when we know the principle do we begin to understand our own previous observations. At the same time, all the figures referring to these different speeds are established and known in school systems. #RandolphHarris 19 of 20

The difference in the speed of centers is a very strange figure which has a cosmic meaning, that is, it enters into many cosmic processes or, it is better to say, it divides many cosmic processes one from another. This figure is 30,000. This means that them moving and instinctive centers are 30,000 times faster than the intellectual center. And the emotional center, when it works with its proper speed, is 30,000 times faster than the moving and instinctive centers. It is difficult to believe in such an enormous difference in the speeds of functions in the same organism. It actually means that different centers have quite different time. The instinctive and moving centers have 30,000 times longer time than the moving and instinctive centers. Do you understand clearly what “longer time” means? It means that, for every kind of work that a center has to do, it has so much more time. However strange it may be, this fact of the great difference in the speed of centers explains many well-known phenomena which ordinary science cannot explain and which it generally passes over in silence, or simply refuses to discuss. I am referring now to the astonishing and quite inexplicable speed of some of the physiological and mental processes. For instance—a man drinks a glass of water, and immediately, in no more than a second, he experiences many new feelings and sensations—a feeling of warmth, relaxation, relief, peace, contentment, well-being, or on the other hand, anger, irritation, and so on. What one feels may be different in different cases, but the fact remains that the body responds to the stimulant very quickly, almost at once. There is really no need to speak about water or any other stimulant; if a human is very thirsty or very hungry, a glass of water or a piece of bread will produce the same quick effect. Similar phenomena representing the enormous speed of certain processes can be noticed, for instance, in observing dreams. #RandolphHarris 20 of 20

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The One’s Who Went Throwing Daddy’s Money Around Like it

The alienated character of contemporary man is somewhat one-sided; there are a number of positive factors which we have not considered. There is in the first place still a humanistic tradition alive, which has not been destroyed by the in-human process of alienation. However, beyond that, there are signs that people are increasingly dissatisfied and disappointed with their way of life and trying to regain some of their lost selfhood and productivity. Millions of people listen to good music in concern halls or over the radio, an ever-increasing number of people paint, do gardening, build their own boats or houses, indulge in any number of “do it yourself” activities. Adult education is spreading, and even in business the awareness is growing that an executive should have reason and not only intelligence. One of the most important principles one learns in this way is that real school work must proceed by three lines simultaneously. One line of work, or two lines of work, cannot be called real “school work.” What are these three lines? What are these three lines? In the past lecture I said that these lectures are not a school. Now I will be able to explain why they are not a school. Once at a lecture a question was asked: “Do people who study this system work only for themselves or do they work for other people?” Now I will also answer this question. The first line is study of oneself and study of the system, or the “language.” Working on this line, one certainly works for oneself. #RandolphHarris 1 of 19

The second line is work with other people in the school, and working with them, one work not only with them but for the school. In order to work for the school, one must first understand the work of the school, understand its aims and needs. And this requires time unless one is really well prepared, because some people can begin with the third line, or in any case find it very easily. These lectures give the possibility of only one line of work; that is, study of the system and self-study. It is true that even by learning together people study the beginning of the second line of work, at least they learn to bear one another, and if their thought is broad enough and their perception quick enough they can even grasp something about the second and third lines of work. Still one cannot expect much just from lectures. In the second line of work, in complete school organization, people must not only talk together, but work together, and this work can be very different but must always, in one or another way, be useful to the school. So it means that working in the first line, people study the second line, and working in the second line, they study the third line. Later you will learn why three lines are necessary and why only three lines of work can proceed successfully and towards a definite aim. Even now you can understand the chief reason of the necessity of three lines of work if you realize that man is asleep, and whatever work he starts, he soon loses interest in it and continues mechanically. Three lines of work are necessary, first of all, because one line awakes a man who falls asleep over another line. If one really works on three lines, one can never fall asleep completely; in any case one cannot sleep as happily as before; one will always awake and realize one’s work has stopped. #RandolphHarris 2 of 19

There are some very characteristic differences between these three lines of work. In the first line, one work chiefly on the study of the system or self-study and on self-observation, and one must manifest in one’s work a certain amount of initiative in relation to oneself. In the second line of work in connection with certain organized work and one must only do what one is told. No initiative is required or admitted in the second line and the chief point in this is discipline and following exactly what one is told, without brining in any of one’s own ideas even if they appear better than those that have been given. In the third line again one can manifest more initiative, but one must always verify oneself and not let oneself make decisions against rules and principles, or against what one has been told. I said before that the work begins with the study of the language. It will be very useful if you try to count these new words of this new language, and it will also be very useful if you try to count these new words and write the down together. Only they must be written down without any comments; that is, without interpretation—comments and interpretations or explanations must be in your understanding. You cannot put them on paper. If this were possible, the study of psychological teachings would be very simple. It would be sufficient to publish a sort of dictionary or glossary and people would know all that it is necessary to know. However, fortunately or unfortunately, this is impossible and men have to learn and work each for himself. #RandolphHarris 3 of 19

We must again return to centers and find why we cannot develop more quickly without the necessity for long school work. We know that when we learn something, we accumulate new material in our memory. However, what is our memory? In order to understand this, we must learn to regard each as a separate and independent machine, consisting of a sensitive matter similar to the mass of phonographic rolls. All that happens to us, all that we see, all that we hear, all that we feel, all that we learn is registered on these rolls. It means that all external and internal events leave certain “impressions” on the rolls. “Impressions” is a very good word because it actually is an impression or an imprint. An impression can be deep, or it can be very slight, or it can be simply a glancing impression that disappears very quickly and leaves no trace after it. However, whether deep or slight they are impressions. And these impressions on rolls are all that we have, all our possessions. Everything that we know, everything that we have learned, everything that we have experienced is all there on our rolls. Exactly in the same way all our thought processes, calculations, speculations, consist only of comparing the inscriptions on rolls, reading them again and again, trying to understand them by putting them together, and so on. We can think of nothing new, nothing that is not on our rolls. We can neither say nor do anything that does not correspond to some inscription on the rolls. We cannot invent a new thought in the same way as we cannot invent a new animal, because all our ideas of animals are created by our observation of existing animals. #RandolphHarris 4 of 19

Inscriptions or impressions on rolls are connected by associations. Associations connect impressions either received simultaneously or in some way similar to one another. In my first lecture I said that memory depends on consciousness and that we actually remember only the moment when we had flashes of consciousness. It is quite clear that different simultaneous impressions connected together will remain longer in memory than unconnected impressions. In the flash of self-consciousness, or even near it, all impressions of the moment are connected and remain connected in the memory. The same refers to impression connected y their inner similarity. If one is more conscious in the moment of receiving impressions, one connects more definitely the new impressions with similar old impressions and they remain connected in memory. On the other hand if one receives impressions in a state of identification, one simply does not notice them, and their traces disappear before they can be appreciated or associated. In the state of identification one does not see and one does not hear. One is wholly in one’s grievance, or in one’s desire, or in one’s imagination. One cannot separate oneself from things or feelings or memories, and one is shut off from all the World around. #RandolphHarris 5 of 19

Letting go, letting go of old ideas and sometimes a healthy reality everyone must face. People look at the mantra on the Statue of Liberty and still think it rings true, but it does not. I am not even really sure it represents America, as it was a gift from France. America has changed and is no longer a population building country, and as we welcome all of our citizens, it is good to understand that America is now about capitalism. It is summed up great in 1 Thessalonians 4.11-12, “And make to it your ambition to lead a quiet life: You should mind your own business and work with your hands, just as we told you, so that your daily life may win the respect of outsiders and so that you will not be dependent on anybody.” Furthermore, so many people flee to America because it has a constitution, human rights, and law and order, but as America keeps welcoming people in, it is becoming more and more corrupt, and some even say worse than the countries others are fleeing from. All social life, even in its most primitive form, requires a certain amount of social co-operation, and even discipline, and that certainly in the more complex form of industrial production, a person has to fulfill certain necessary and specialized functions. In a society where no person has power over another, each person fulfills one’s functions on the basis of co-operation and mutuality. No one can command another person, expect insofar as a relationship is based on mutual co-operation, on love, friendship or natural ties. #RandolphHarris 6 of 19

Actually we find this present in many situations in our society today: the normal co-operation of husband and wife in their family is to a large extent not any more determined by the power of the husband to command his wife, as it existed in older forms of patriarchal society, but on the principle of co-operation and mutuality. The same holds true for the relationship of friends, inasmuch as they perform certain services for each other and co-operate with each other. In these relationships no one would dare to think of commanding the other person; the only reason for expecting one’s help lies in the mutual feeling of love, friendship or simply human solidarity. The help of another person is secured by my active effort, as a human being, to elicit one’s love, friendship and sympathy. In the relationship of the employer to the employee, this is not the case. The employer has bought the services of the worker, and however humans one’s treatment may be, one still commands one, not on a basis of mutuality, but on the basis of having bought one’s working time for so many hours a day. The use of man by man is expressive of the system of values underlying the capitalistic system. Capitol, the dead past, employs labour—living vitality and power of the present. There are, however, limits to how far even a flex-firm can go toward diversity. The spread of the “profit center”—which has seen many once-monolithic companies broken into semiautonomous, independently accounted units, each responsible for its own operations and its own profit and loss—can be seen as only a first step toward the eventual dissolution of the company altogether, atomized into network or consortium of completely independent contractors or free entrepreneurs. #RandolphHarris 7 of 19

In this model, every worker is a free lance, freely contracting with other free lancers, to get specific jobs done. However, no social process continues forever, and the day of the total individualization of work, the ultimate dream of the theologically committed free-marketeer, is far distant. Instead, we can expect profit centers to become smaller—and more diverse—without disappearing into millions of one-person firms. There is, after all, only as much diversity that any organization can tolerate and any managerial term manage. The argument here, therefore, is not that companies should maximize the variety of their organizational formats, but that today’s companies, in their flight from the rigor mortis of bureaucracy, need to explore far more diverse options than ever before. They need, in short, to liberate their “colonies” and even to invent new formats. In doing so, they—and we—move away from the idea that an organization is like a machine, each of its actions predictable and determinists, toward a conception of organization that is closer to the biological. Living systems are only partly deterministic, only sometimes predictable. This is why the new electronic networks are increasingly tending toward neural rather than preplanned architectures. It is why you cannot tell in advance how the traffic will operate. If you break a link between two places, provided that the network is still connected to those two points, it will find its own way. We believe in the value of communication between any two individuals based on what they know rather than what their place is in the hierarchy. #RandolphHarris 8 of 19

Just as hyper-media, the new form of data base, permits knowledge to be arranged in extremely varied ways, the concept of the flex-firms points toward companies that can adapt in myriad ways to the twisty, quirky high-change competition that lies ahead. The emerging flex-firm of the future, however, cannot function without basic changes in the power relationships of employees and their bosses. These changes are well on their way. From power shifting on the shop floor as well as in the executive suit. Capitalism is about give and take. And the American government must honor the Constitution of the United States of America. Someone cannot just come to your door and demand that you give them goods and/or service just because that is what they want. If you want the newspaper, you have to pay for it. If you want electricity, you have to pay for it. Nothing is free and no one is obligated to give you anything. Amendment IV of the United States Constitution states, “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effect, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” You do not have a right to enter anyone’s home and kidnap them or go through their personal affects and steal just because you want to. Amendment VIII of the United States Constitution states, “Excessive bail shall not be required, not excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.” That means the government or anyone acting as a representative of the government has no right to do anything that will cause great bodily harm, injury, or death to a person just because they feel like it. #RandolphHarris 9 of 19

The government also does not have the right to hunt and terrorize their own citizens. In the capitalistic hierarchy of values, capital stands higher than labour, amassed things higher than the manifestations of life. Capital employs labour, and not labour capital. The person who owns capital commands the person who “only” owns his life, human skill, vitality and creative productivity. “Things” are higher than man. The conflict between capital and labour is much more than the conflict between two classes, more than their fight for a greater share of the social product. It is the conflict between two principles of value: that between the World of thing, and their amassment, and the World of life and productivity. Because of the dynamics of authority in the United States of America, President Lincoln, because of pressure from the abolitionist and their antislavery pressure, issues the Emancipation Proclamation. This provided that all people who were enslaved in the United States of America in states still in active rebellion against the United States of America would be freed automatically on January 1, 1863. The Thirteenth Amendment was the first of the three Civil War Amendments. It banned all forms of “slavery [and] involuntary servitude.” Civil Rights Act of 1875, designed to grant equal access to public accommodations such as theaters, restaurants, and transportation. The act also prohibited the exclusion of African Americans from jury duty. (Although many do to apricate this exclusion.)  So not only are all American citizens free and afforded constitutional rights, the also have been given by the Supreme Court protection to rights not enumerated specifically in the Constitution or Bills of Rights. Although the Constitution is silent about the right to privacy, the Bill of Rights contains many indications that the Framers expected that some areas of life were “off limits” to governmental regulation. The right to freedom of religion guaranteed in the First Amendment implies the right to exercise private, personal beliefs. #RandolphHarris 10 of 19

As we have already discussed, the guarantee against unreasonable searches and seizures contained in the Fourth Amendment similarly implies that persons are to be secure in their homes and should not fear that police will show up at their doorsteps without cause. As early as 1928, Justice Louis Brandeis hailed privacy as “the right to be left alone—the most comprehensive of rights and the right most valued by civilized men.” Furthermore, you may file a health information privacy and security complaint with the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) if you feel a covered entity or business associate violated your (or someone else’s) health information privacy rights or committed another violation of the Privacy, Security or Breach Notification Rules. The HIPAA Privacy Rule establishes national standards to protect individuals’ medical records and other individuality identifiable health information (collectively defined as “protected health information”) and applies to health plans, health care clearinghouses, and those health care providers that conduct certain health care transactions. The Rule requires appropriate safeguards to protect the privacy of protected health care information and sets limits and conditions on the uses and disclosures that may be made of such information without an individual’s authorization. The Rule also gives individuals rights over their protected health information, including rights to examine and obtain a copy of their health records, to direct a covered entity to transmit to a third party an electronic copy of their protected health information in an electronic health record, and to request corrections. The Privacy Rule is located at 45 CFR Part 160 and Subparts A and E of Part 1644. #RandolphHarris 11 of 19

While on legal aspects of this lecture, there are a few more points I would like to cover. Whoever steals, takes, or abstracts, or by fraud or deception obtains, or attempts so to obtain, from or out of any mail, post office, or station thereof, letter box, mail receptacle, or any mail route or other authorized depository for mail matter, or from a letter or mail carrier, any letter, postal card, package, bag, or mail, or abstracts or removes from any such letter, package, bag, or mail, any article or thing contained therein, or secretes, embezzles, or destroys any such letter, postal card, package, bag, or mail any article or thing contained therein; or whoever steals, takes, or abstracts, or by fraud or deception obtains any letter, postal card, package, bag, or mail, or any article or thing contained therein which has been left for collection upon or adjacent to a collection box or other authorized depository of mail matter; or whoever buys, receives, or conceals, or unlawfully has in his possession, any letter, postal card, package, bag, or mail, or any article or thing contained therein, which has been so stolen, taken, embezzled, or abstracted, as herein described, knowing the same to have been stolen, taken, embezzled, or abstracted—shall be find under title 18 U.S. Code S 1708—theft or receipt of stolen mail matter generally, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. #RandolphHarris 12 of 19

Furthermore, email privacy laws govern the privacy of data transmitted through email. Privacy on the Internet and through email is a growing concern, and email privacy laws are part of that. Email privacy is derived from the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and is governed by the “reasonable expectation of privacy” standard. Emails are also governed by the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) and the Patriot Act. Although the ECPA originally set up protections weakened in many instances by the Patriot Act. Even where the protection remains under the ECPA, email lose their status as protected communication in 180 days, which means a warrant is no longer necessary and your emails can be accessed by a simple subpoena. This is usually applies more to a person doing government business from a personal computer. Otherwise people have a reasonable expectation of privacy. One cannot just hack into someone’s email and read them because they want to. Most employers have their employees sign a computer and network usage policy, which typically will set forth that your email is to be used only for business purposes and grants the employer the right to monitor email and computer usage. This agreement normally deprives an employee of any reasonable expectation of privacy, and means that your emails are fair game for an employer to search through. Employers, unlike law enforcement, do not have very many obstacles preventing them from searching your emails. You are sending communications from their equipment that could affect their business, which usually provides them with the justification to search through your emails. #RandolphHarris 13 of 19

Even without an agreement in place, courts have rarely found that the employee had a reasonable expectation of privacy to his or her email at work for a variety of reasons. For example, one court held that emails used in a business context are simply a part of the office environment, the same as a fax or copy machine, in which you do not have a reasonable expectation of privacy. Another court found that by corresponding with other people at work, work email was inherently work-related, and thus there could be no reasonable expectation of privacy. Employees are supposed to be working, and monitoring email at work is one way to ensure that employees are using work email appropriately. The larger issue for most employers however is liability. Workplace harassment lawsuits are prevalent, and one way to protect a business from being sued is to monitor and prevent any harassment in the first place. Many employers run software that searches for offensive words and highlights problematic emails. The other main concern with liability is that old emails will be used years down the road in a lawsuit. What an employee says can be preserved for years, and unless the company has an established, reasonable practice of purging its emails, those emails can be a gold mine for anyone suing the company. Emails can be especially devastating, because of the informal way that people write and send them, saying things in emails they never would in professional correspondence. Government employees have even less privacy than usual. Under various public records acts and the Freedom of Information ACT (FOIA), the public can gain access to almost anything a government employee writes down. #RandolphHarris 14 of 19

Also, due to the nature of their job, courts are typically unwilling to find that government employees had a reasonable right to privacy in the first place. How Kevin Johnson, the former Mayor of Sacramento was able to evade the law is unclear. Unlike your email at work, emailing from home is more likely to grant you a reasonable expectation of privacy. While it may be difficult for law enforcement to legally gain access to your home computer and local copies of your emails, it is substantially less difficult for them to get your ISP to turn over your emails. Authority is not a quality one person “has” in a since that one has property or physical qualities. Authority refers to an interpersonal relation in which one person looks upon another as somebody superior to one. However, there is a fundamental difference between a kind of superiority-inferiority relation which can be called rational authority and one which may be described as inhibiting, or irrational authority. Today a new wave conflict looms on the horizon, and not just in the United States of America. The coming clash will set defenders of our existing education factories against a growing movement committed to replacing them—movement comprising four key elements. Teachers: The existing system typically reduces teaching to mechanical, by-the-book instruction and standardized testing, draining the last creativity out of both teacher and student. Within the schools today are millions of burned-out teachers resigned to serving their time until retirement as passive supporters of this status quo. #RandolphHarris 15 of 19

Yet within these same schools are legions of heroic, miserably underpaid teachers who struggle against the system from within. Despite the constraints imposed on them, some manage to do remarkable things for children and burst with ideas that could help propel education out of the industrial age. With little support from outside, they remain a vanguard, as it were, waiting to join the movement for radical—rather than incremental—chance. Parents: Among parents, too, there are unmistakable signs of disaffection with the old coalition. Many support the tiny but growing number of charter schools, magnet schools and other limited experiments within the existing public education system. Others are hiring private tutors or sending their children to after-school programs like the juku in Japan. Tutoring is now becoming so pervasive it is arguably changing the face of American education. Nor is tutoring limited by geography. Teachers in India are tutoring America children in mat over the Internet. Other parents, having entirely given up on the old system, are teaching their children at home—and not just for religious reasons. The Web offers them more than a million listings and descriptions of home-teaching assistants. The more out of sync the failing industrial-age school system becomes with the needs of a knowledge-based economy, the more likely it is that parental protest will assume increasingly muscular forms. Angry and empowered by the Internet, activist parents can be expected to reach far beyond neighbourhood parent-teacher associations and organize themselves into local, national an even global movements to demand completely new educational models, methods, content and institutions. #RandolphHarris 16 of 19

Students: Children did not wield enough power in centuries past to matter much in the movement to create mass education. Today they can help bring it much down. They already are waging anarchic war against the system. Their revolt takes two forms, one outside the classroom, the other within it. Kids have always rebelled against schools, but in the past they did not have access to cell phones, computers, Ecstasy, purple magic, adult films and videos, or the Internet. Nor, as they grew up, did they face an economy that needed their brains, rather than their muscles. Today many, if not most, students know in their gut that today’s schools are preparing them for yesterday instead of tomorrow. The first, all-too-familiar form of rebellion consists of dropping out—and stiffing us with the bill. In a striking manifest called Leaving School: Finding Education, two professors of education, Jon Wiles at the University of North Florida and John Lundt at the University of Montana, calculate that 30 percent of students in grades nine through twelve drop out of American schools after costing $50,000 to $75,000 each—even with underpaid teachers. Once out, many join what a century ago was called the lumpen proletariat, or underclass, made up of street people, criminals, drug pushers, the mentally ill or unemployable. #RandolphHarris 17 of 19

The other rebellion takes place inside the classroom. Attacking the root assumptions of factory-style schools, Wiles and Lundt question whether education should continue to be compulsory. So, undoubtedly, do many teachers who are forced to serve as jailers faced every day with the equivalent of a riot in the cell block as their pupils fight any semblance of discipline. Teachers cannot defend against the plague of media violence the local news especially loves to feed off of. Techers cannot defend against the worship of celebrities, including sport figures who cheat with drugs, lie to their spouses, get drunk, beat people up and have to be defended against rape charges. Nor can they, or parents, easily defend against pedophiles trawling school campuses, apartments, parks, coffee shops of the Web for unsuspecting kids. Some schools are so racked with violence—against teachers as well as pupils—that their hallways require police patrols. Young people have always educated—and miseducated themselves. Today, however, they do so with the dubious help of the new media. Games and cell phones are hidden behind open textbooks. Text messages fly back and forth even as the teacher drones on. It is as though, while teachers incarcerate kids in classrooms, their ears, eyes and minds escape to rove the cyberuniverse. From a very young age, they are aware that no teacher and no school can make available even the tiniest fraction of data, information, knowledge—and fun—available online. They know that in one universe they are prisoners. In the other, free. #RandolphHarris 18 of 19

Business: So long as the schools, continued, generation, to supply companies with a workforce pre-disciplined for factory life, the coalition in support of industrial-age schools remained firm. However, from the mid-twentieth century one, as the new wealth system began to spread, new, different job skills became necessary—skills the broad base of existing schools could not provide. Th gap widened so dramatically that some believe America’s high schools are obsolete because they are not working exactly as designed. However, some of the fault lies on the parents and students. Many of these students have mental and behavioural problems. Ideally, students are supposed to be quiet and polite and focus on the teacher and material like they are possessed and that is all there is in that moment. They are supposed to read the material, raise their hands to ask questions, read out loud, and do their homework. So one cannot blame the school. A lot more kids need to be medicated so they can focus on school material and they must also be taught to take the material seriously. This clarion call for fixing families and the school is significant. Kids need to be taught life is serious and how to follow directions. The purpose of existence is that we human beings, all nations and the whole of humanity, should constantly progress toward perfection. We must search for these conditions and hold fast to these ideals. If we do this, our finite spirit will be in harmony with the infinite. The soul is a burning desire to breathe in the World of light and never to lose it—to remain children of the light. Happy are those who listen to righteous counsel. #RandolphHarris 19 of 19


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Call that Stealing the Future!

Perfection for Aristotle (as well as for Plato) is realized in degrees, natural, personal, and social; and courage as the affirmation of one’s essential being is more conspicuous in some of these degrees than in others. Since the greatest test of courage is the readiness to make the greatest sacrifice, the sacrifice of one’s life, and since the soldier is required by his profession to be always ready for this sacrifice, the soldier’s courage is and somehow remains the outstanding example of courage. Although development is possible, it is at the same time very rare and requires a great number of external and internal conditions. The first of these conditions is that man must understand his position, his difficulties, and his possibilities, and must have either a very strong desire to get out of his present state or have a very great interest for the new, for the unknow state which must come with the change. Speaking shortly, he must be either very strongly repelled by his present state or very strongly attached by the future state that may be attained. Further, one must have a certain preparation. A man must be able to understand what he is told. Also, he must be in right conditions externally; he must have sufficient free time for study and must live in circumstances which make study possible. It is impossible to enumerate all the conditions which are necessary. However, they include among other things a school. And school implies such social and political conditions in the given country in which a school can exist, because a school cannot exist in any conditions; and a more or less ordered life and a certain level of culture and personal freedom are necessary for the existence of a school. #RandolphHarris 1 of 22

In many countries schools are impossible. One must not live in a country governed by Sudras, nor inhabited by impious men, nor in one conquered by heretics, nor one abounding with men of lower castes. One must not be in the company of outcastes, nor Kandalas, the lowest of men, nor of Pukkases, nor of idiots, nor of arrogant men, nor of men of low class, nor of Antyavasayins (gravediggers). A kingdom people mostly by Sudras, filled with godless men and deprived of twice-born inhabitants, will soon wholly perish, stricken by hunger and disease. These ideas of the Laws of Manu are very interesting because they give us a basis on which we can judge different political and social conditions from the point of view of school work, and to see which conditions are really progressive, and which bring only the destruction of all real values, although their adherents pretend that these conditions are progressive and even manage to deceive quantities of weak-minded people. However, external conditions do not depend on us. To a certain extent, and sometimes with great difficulty, we can choose the country where we prefer to live, but we cannot choose the period or the century and must try to find what we want in the period in which we are placed by fate. So we must understand that even the beginning of preparation for development needs a combination of external and internal conditions which only rarely come all together. However, at the same time we must understand that, at least so far as internal conditions are concerned, man is not entirely left to the law of accident. If he cares to and if he is lucky, there are many lights arranged for him by which h can find his way. #RandolphHarris 2 of 22

What makes a man desire to acquire new knowledge and to change himself? Man lives in life under two kinds of influences. This must be very well understood and the difference between the two kinds of influences must be very clear. The first kind consists of interests and attractions created by life itself; interests of one’s health, safety, wealth, pleasures, amusements, security, vanity, pride, fame etcetera. The second kind consists of interests of a different order aroused by ideas which are not created in life but come originally from schools. These influences do not reach man directly. They are thrown into the general turnover of life, pass through many different minds and reach a man through philosophy, science, religion, and art, always mixed with influences of the first find and generally very little resembling what they were in their beginning. In most cases, men do not realize the different origin of the influences of the second kind and often explain them as having the same origin as the first time. Although man does not know of the existence of two kinds of influences, they both act on him and in one way or another way he responds to them. He can be more identified with one or with some of the influences of the fist kind and not feel influences of the second kind at all. Or he can be attracted and affected by one or another of the influences of the second kind. The result is different in each case. We will call the first kind of influence, influence A, and the second, influence B. #RandolphHarris 3 of 22

If a man is fully in the power of influence A, or of one particular influence A, and quite indifferent to influence B, nothing happens to him, and his possibility of development diminishes with every year of his life; and at a certain age, sometimes quite an early age, it disappears completely. This means that man dies while physically remaining still alive, like grain that cannot germinate and produce a plant. However, if, on the other hand, man is not completely in the power of influence A, and if influences B attract him and make him feel and think, results of the impressions they produce in him collect together, attract other influences of the same kind, and grow, occupying a more important place in his mind and life. If the results produced by influence B become sufficiently strong, they fuse together and form in man what is called a magnetic center. It must be understood at once that the word “center” in this case does not mean the same thing ad the “intellectual” or the “moving” center; that is, centers in the essence. The magnetic center is in personality; it is simply a group of interests which, when they become sufficiently strong, serve, to a certain degree, as a guiding and controlling factor. The magnetic centers turns one’s interests in a certain direction and helps to keep them there. At the same time it cannot do much by itself. A school is necessary. The magnetic center cannot replace a school, but it can help to realize the need of a school; it can help in beginning to look for a school, or if one meets a school by chance, the magnetic center can help to recognize a school and try not to lose it. Because nothing is easier to lose than a school. #RandolphHarris 4 of 22

Possession of a magnetic center is the first, although quite unspoken, demand of a school. If a man without a magnetic center, or a small or weak magnetic center, or with several contradictory magnetic center, or with several contradictory magnetic centers, that is, interested in many incompatible things at the same time, meets a school, one does not become interested in it, or one becomes critical at once before one can know anything, or one’s interest disappears very quickly when one meets with the first difficulties of school work. This is the chief safeguard of a school. Without it the school would be filled with quite a wrong kind of people who would immediately distort the school teaching. A right magnetic center not only helps one to recognize a school, it also helps to absorb the school teaching, which is different from both influences A and influences B and may be called influence C. Influence C can be transferred only by word of mouth, by direct instruction, explanation, and demonstration. When a man meets with influence C and is able to absorb it, it is said about him that in one point himself—that is, in his magnetic center—he becomes free from the law of accident. From this moment the magnetic center has actually played its part. It brought man to a school or helped him in his first steps there. From then on the ideas and the teachings of the school take the place of the magnetic center and slowly begin to penetrate into the different parts of personality and with time into essence. #RandolphHarris 5 of 22

One can learn many things about schools, about their organization and about their activity, in the ordinary way by reading and by studying historical periods when schools were more conspicuous and more accessible. However, there are certain things about schools that one can learn only in schools themselves. And the explanation of school principles and rules occupies a very considerable place in school teaching. However, promising and real as all these trends are, they are not enough to justify an attitude which is to be found among a number of very sophisticated writers who claim that criticisms of our society. The United States of America will not maintain its spearhead role in the World wealth revolution, it will not hold on to global power and it will not reduce poverty without replacing—not merely reforming—its factory-focused education system. Wave conflict over public education—and the $800 billion the present system costs every year (not counting the societal costs of its failure and its indirect costs to business in terms of an ill-prepared workforce)—will escalate in personal and political passion in the years ahead. Perhaps the greatest cost of wave conflict in America will be paid by nearly fifty million children currently compulsorily enrolled in schools that are attempting to prepare them—and not very successfully at that—for jobs that will not exist. Call that stealing the future. #RandolphHarris 6 of 22

Education is about far more than jobs. However, the schools, with minute exceptions, also fail to prepare students for their roles as consumers and prosumers. Nor does this system, by and large, help kids copes with the rising complexity and new life options they face in gender, marriage, ethics, and other dimensions of the emerging society. Least of all does it succeed in introducing more than a tiny fraction of them to the enormous pleasures of learning itself. Negative as it sounds today, however, the mass education system, in its time, was in fact a progressive advance over pre-industrial reality where, by and large, only a small percentage of children ever went to school, and where literacy and numeracy were almost non-existent among the poor. It took generations, even after the rise of industrialism, to put children in school rather than in cheap-labour factories from the earliest possible age. Today we still keep all these millions of children in factory-style schools because that is where an unlikely, nameless coalition of special interests has wanted them to be. To understand this coalition, we need to glance back to its origins in the late 1800s. At that time, while many parents opposed sending the children to school because they needed them to work in the fields or factories, an increasingly vocal number fought for free public education. However, it was only when business interests concluded that schools could contribute to productivity by helping to impose “industrial discipline” on young workers fresh off the farm that the pro-education coalition gained real power. #RandolphHarris 7 of 22

The values and attitudes associated with industrial discipline….inner discipline, hard work, punctuality, frugality, sobriety, orderliness and prudence. Schools taught these not only through text book preachments, but also through the very character of their organization—the grouping, periodizing and objective impersonality were not unlike those of the factory. In addition, the arrival of millions of immigrants speaking diverse languages brought affordable labour to U.S. shores from many different countries and cultures. However, to be productive in the factory economy, they needed to be assimilated or homogenized into the dominant American culture of the time, and from about 1875 to 1925, one of the dominant functions of the schools was the Americanization of the foreign-born. Business, in short, now has a crucial stake in massifying armies of the young to help build the mass-production economy of the industrial age. As industrialism developed further in the twentieth center, big labour arose to protect the interest of workers. Unions as a rule strongly supported public education—not just because its members wanted a better life for their children, but because unions, too, had a hidden, or unnoticed, stake in the system. The smaller the available workforce, the less competition for jobs and the higher the wages. Unions not only fought the good fight against child labour but also campaigned to extend the years of compulsory education, thus keeping millions of young people out of the labour market for longer and longer periods. #RandolphHarris 8 of 22

The subsequent unionization of teachers, moreover, created a large membership with an even stronger, personal reason to support the mass-education system designed for the industrial age. In addition to parents, business and labour, government, too, had reason to support big education. Public agencies recognized the economic advantages of the system but had secondary, less obvious reasons to support it. For example, when compulsory education worked, it kept many millions of high-testosterone teenagers off the streets, improving public order and reducing crime and the costs of policing and prison. What we saw, therefore, throughout the industrial era, was an unbreakable coalition that has preserved the factory-school model—a mass education system that fit neatly into the matrix of mass production, mass media, mass culture, mass sports, mass entertainment and mass politics. The whole apparatus of public education has largely been shaped by the needs and ideologies of industrialism…predicated on old assumptions about the supply and demand for labour. They keywords of this system are linearity, conformity and standardization. The Information Revolution not only promotes faster and wider adaption; it can also promote a new mode of thinking about social systems. The Industrial Revolution made metaphors of machines and factory production widely available. These mechanical conceptions had a profound effect on approaches to organizational design. In business, they led to an emphasis on predictability and control. #RandolphHarris 9 of 22

In public affairs, they led to an emphasis on rules to be executed by hierarchies of relatively expert and impartial public officials. In both settings, efficiency and consistency became preeminent goals. Of course, real processes often did not exhibit unblemished efficiency and impartiality, but these were the ideals toward which organizational activities were oriented. Recently, there has been increasing dissatisfaction with the costs of the industrial mode of thinking and action. Its impersonality and rigidity are frustrating. Its slowness and inability to adjust to changing circumstances and local conditions have become obvious. With the advent of the Information Age, the bottom-up style of thinking associated with Complex Adaptive Systems may well become a greater part of people’s understanding of how economic, social, and political processes actually function and change. In some respects, bottom-up thinking has had a long history. Adam Smith and Charles Darwin introduced some of the major ideas of Complex Adaptive Systems. Adam Smith’s 1776 description of a market introduced some of the key concepts of complex systems, including the notion of a hidden hand and market clearing, concepts that would now be called emergent properties of the system. Darwin’s 1859 theory was another major advance, with its understanding of how evolutionary adaptation results from mutation and differential biological evolution have already had a tremendous impact on modern thought. Nevertheless, people have only just begun to absorb their full implications. No doubt, machines and hierarchies provide easier metaphors to use than markets and gene pools. So it is no wonder that most people are still more comfortable thinking about organizations in fixed, mechanical terms rather than in adaptive, decentralized terms. #RandolphHarris 10 of 22

As the complexity approach enters economic and political discourse, some of the premises of the industrial mode of thought will become less self-evident. The legitimacy associated with both traditional and bureaucratic authority may be further weakened. The premises about the inherent virtue of harmony, efficiency, and hierarchical lines of authority will be questioned. Instead, people will be more comfortable with the ideas of perpetual novelty, adaptation as a function of entire populations, the value of variety and experimentation, and the potential of decentralized and overlapping authority. Economic, social, and political design will emphasize questions such as the proper balance between exploration and exploitation, and the dangers of premature convergence. For example, excess pollution my be treated as a mismatch between performance criteria used by formal institutions, and the personal values held by citizens. Just as the clock and the steam engine provided powerful images for the metaphor of society as machine, distributed information technology can provide a powerful image for the metaphor of society as a Complex Adaptive System. Already, the Internet provides an example that has begun to capture the popular imagination in the way that the early advances of the Industrial Age captured the imagination of social thinkers and the broad public. The fact that the Internet functions without a central authority is widely marveled at today, precisely because it challenges widely accepted notions of how large systems are “supposed” to work. #RandolphHarris 11 of 22

New organizational forms will also make the complex systems metaphor more accessible. Virtual corporations that recombine small units from different companies on an ad hoc basis will demonstrate the value of decentralized adaptation. Geographically dispersed activities based on information technology will foster greater telecommuting and distance learning, and these trends will make the metaphor of population-based adaptation more accessible. Most people in industrial nations have worked with machines and have been exposed to the discipline of the factory or office. This has had a powerful influence on our way of thinking about politics and society. Today more and more people are becoming personally familiar with the flexible, adaptive, and dispersed nature of information technology. This familiarity will make the metaphor of the Complex Adaptive System more compelling as a guide to thinking not just about information technology itself, but also about how business, society, and government can and should function effectively. There is an important caveat here that must be emphasized: decentralized systems do not always work well, just as machines do not always work well. The market provides a very helpful example in this regard. While a “free” market has many theoretical and practical advantages over a command system, there is an important body of knowledge and experience about market failures. #RandolphHarris 12 of 22

Even Adam Smith appreciated the need for government to protect the market from force and fraud. People now recognize a range of additional problems, including the tendency of some markets to self-organize into oligopolies or even monopolies. Moreover, information systems are subject to several modes of failure. Rather than undermining the vale of complexity as a way of thinking about social systems, an appreciate of how Complex Adaptive Systems can fail provides valuable guidance for the design and management of complex systems, including human organizations as well as technical systems. Designing new strategies and organizations will frequently imply altering—or even creating—the variation, interaction, and selection that are hallmarks of a Complex Adaptive System. Finally, a word on networks. This form of organization has received so much attention in recent years, has been so heavily hyped, and has been defined so broadly that a touch of caution is warranted. For many, the network is a panacea. Societies and businesses are riddled with networks of many kinds. We normally think of them as the informational pathways along which information and influence flow. Feminists complain that an “old boys’ network” frequently operates to deprive women managers of promotion. Ex-military men often have their own network of contacts, as do former police and members of the Federal Bureau of Investigations, many of whom take jobs as corporate security officers after their retirement from government service. #RandolphHarris 13 of 22

Homosexual have networks that are particularly strong in certain industries like fashion, fitness, interior design, writing and producing movies and TV shows and cooking or owning restaurants. Other marginalized groups have strong networks–overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia, Jewish people in Europe and America, West Indians in Britain. Transplanted people in general–New Yorkers in Texas, the so-called Georgia Mafia that came to Washington when Jimmy Carter was President, the Ukrainians who came to Moscow with Leonid Brezhnev—also their own communication networks. Informal networks of many kinds crop up in virtually all complex societies. To these one must add formal networks—Masons, for example, Mormons, or members of the Catholic order Opus Dei. For a long time the role and structure of such networks were ignored by economists and business theorists. Today they are much studied as potential models for corporate structure. This recent interest can be traced to deep social changes. One is the previously noted breakdown of formal communication in companies. When the firm’s bureaucratic channels and cubbyholes get clogged, unable to carry the heavy volumes of communication and information needed nowadays to produce wealth, the “right information” does not get to the “right person” as it once did, and employees fall back on the informal networks to help carry the information load. Similarly, the de-massification of the economy compels companies and work units to interact with more numerous and varied partners than before. This means more personal and electronic contact with strangers. #RandolphHarris 14 of 22

However, when a stranger tells us something, how do we know if it is accurate? When possible, skeptical managers check in with their personal networks—people they have known or worked with for years—to supplement and verify what they learn through formal channels. Finally, since an increasing number of business problems today require cross—discipline information, and the broken-down cubbyhole-and-channel system stands in the way, employees rely on friends and contact in the network whose membership may be scattered across many departments and units. These networks, formal or not, share common characteristics. They tend to be horizontal rather than vertical—meaning they have either a flat hierarchy or none at all. They are adaptive—able to reconfigure themselves quickly to meet changed conditions. Leadership in them tends to be based on competence and personality rather than on social organizational rank. And power turns over frequently and more easily than in a bureaucracy, changing hands as new situations arise that demand new skills. All this had popularized the notion of the corporate network among both academics and manager. Corning, Inc., which operates in four sectors—telecommunications, housewares, materials, and laboratory sciences—describes itself as a “global network.” A network is an interrelated group of businesses with a wide range of ownership structures. Within each sector there are a variety of business structures that range from traditional line divisions to wholly owned subsidiaries and alliances with other companies. #RandolphHarris 15 of 22

A network is egalitarian. There is no parent company. A corporate staff is no more, or less, important than a line organization group. And being part of a joint venture is just as important as working at the hub of a network. Networks can be enormously useful, flexible, and antibureaucratic. However, in the recent enthusiasm, elementary distinctions are often ignored. In the 1970s one of the earliest and deepest analysts of network organization, Anthony Judge, then based in Brussels at the Union of International Associations, examined the density and response times of people networks, the structure of nets and their social functions, and the degree of connectedness they exhibit. He also compared human networks with such inanimate networks as pipelines, electric grids, railways, and transaction networks handling foreign exchange, commodity trading, and so on. Judge developed a whole little-known but useful vocabulary for network concept. He also brilliantly matrixed global networks against global problems, showing in a vast volume how networks of ideas or problems were linked, how networks of organizations overlapped, and how ideas and organizations were related. More recently Netmap Intenrational, an affiliate of KPMG Peat Marwick, has developed a methodology for identifying the hidden communication networks in organizations as varied as the Republican Party and a giant accounting firm, in the course of its work for business and governments from Malaysia to Sweden. #RandolphHarris 16 of 22

Organizations are redesigned daily by their members to get the job done. That is the real structure. It is the informal organization—the anti-organization. It is the primary organization. If you cannot identify it, and track its changes, how are you going to manage it? You will be satisfied with manipulating the formal organization with titles, hierarchies and tables of organizations. Such tracking can provide deep insight into existing organizations, but the enthuse blindly today over networks and assume that networks are “the” basic form of the future is to imply much the same uniformity that bureaucracy imposed, albeit at a higher, looser level. Like any other type of human organization, the network has its limitations along with its virtues. Network organization is superb for fighting terrorism or a decentralized guerrilla war, not marvelous at all for the control of strategic nuclear weapons where the last thing we want is for local commanders to be free and unrestrained. The flex-firm is a broader concept, which implies an organization capable of encompassing both the formal and informal, the bureaucratic and the networked suborganizations. It implies even greater diversity. While we might never get the chance to skipper in an America’s Cup race, one of us found himself with a very similar problem. At the end of his academic studies, Harvey celebrated at one of Cambridge University’s May Balls (the English equivalent of a college prom). #RandolphHarris 17 of 22

Part of the festivities included a casino. Every one was given $20 worth of chips, and the person who had amassed the greatest fortune by evening’s end would win a free ticket to next year’s ball. When it came  time for the last spin of the roulette wheel, by a happy coincidence, Harvey led with $700 worth of chips, and the next closets was a young Englishwoman with $300. The rest of the group had been effectively cleaned out. Just before the last bets were to be placed, the woman offered to split next year’s ball ticket, but Harvey refused. With his substantial lead, there was little reason to settle for half. To better understand the next strategic move, we take a brief detour to the rules of roulette. The betting in roulette is based on where a ball will land when the spinning wheel stops. There are typically numbers 0 through 36 on the wheel. When the ball lands on zero, the house wins. The safest bet in roulette is to be on every or odd (denoted by Black or Red). These bets pay even money—a one-dollar bet returns two dollars—while the chance of winning is only 18/37. Even betting her entire stake would not lead to victory at these odds; therefore, the woman was forced to take on of the more risky gambles. She had bet her entire stake on the chance that the ball would land on a multiple of three. This bet pays two to one (so her $300 bet would return $900 if she won) but has only a 12/37 chance of winning. She placed her bet on the table. At that point it could not be withdrawn What should Harvey do? #RandolphHarris 18 of 22

Harvey should have copied the woman’s bet and placed $300 on the event that the ball landed on a multiple of three. This guarantees that he stays ahead of her by $400 and wins the ticket: either they both lose the bet and Harvey wins $400 to $0, or they both win the bet and Harvey ends up ahead $1,300 to $900. The woman had no other choice. If she did not bet, she would have lost anyway; whatever she bet on, Harvey could follow her and stay ahead. (If truth be told, this is what Harvey wished he had done. It was 3.00 in the morning and much too much champagne had been drunk for him to have been thinking clearly. He bet $200 on the even numbers figuring that he would end up in second place only in the event that he lost and she won, the odds of which were approximately 5.1 in his favor. Of course 5.1 events sometimes happen and this was one of those cases. She won.) Her only hope was that Harvey would bet first. If Harvey had been first to place $200 on Black, what should she have done? She should have bet her $300 on Red. Betting her stake on Black would do her no good, since she would win only when Harvey wins (and she would place second with $600 compared with Harvey’s $900). Winning when Harvey lost would be her only chance to take the lead, and that dictates a bet on Red. The strategic moral is the opposite from that of our tale of Martin Luther and Charles de Gaulle. In this tale of roulette, the person who moved first was at a disadvantage. The woman by betting first, allowed Harvey to choose a strategy that would guarantee victory. If Harvey had bet first, the woman could have chosen a response that offered an even chance of winning. #RandolphHarris 19 of 22

The general point is that in games it is not always an advantage to seize the initiative and move first. This reveals your hand, and other players can use this to their advantage and your cost. Second movers may be in the stronger strategic position. Anyone who practices the art of cultural criticism must endure being asked, “What is the solution to the problems you describe?” Critics almost never appreciate this question, since, in most cases, they are entirely satisfied with themselves for having posed the problems and, in any event, are rarely skilled in formulating practical suggestions about anything. This is why they became cultural critics. The question comes forth nonetheless, and in three different voices. One is gentle and eager, as if to suggest that the critic knows the solutions but has merely forgotten to include them in the work itself. A second is threatening and judgmental, as if to suggest that the critic had no business bothering people in the first place unless there were some pretty good solutions at hand. And a third is wishful and encouraging, as if to suggest that it is well known that there are not always solutions to serious problems but if the critic will give it a little thought perhaps something constructive might come from the effort. It is to this last way of posing the question that I should like to respond. I have indeed given the matter some thought.  A reasonable response (hardly a solution) to the problem of living in a developing Technopoly can be divided into two parts: what the individual can do irrespective of what the culture is doing; and what the culture can do irrespective of what any individual is going. #RandolphHarris 20 of 22

Beginning with the matter of individual response, I must say at once that I have no intention of providing a “how to” list in the manner of the “experts” ridiculed in our “broken defenses.” No one is an expert on how to live a life. I can, however, offer Talmudic-like principle that seems to me an effective guide for those who wish to defend themselves against the worst effects of the American Technopoly. It is this: You must try to be a loving resistance fighter. By “loving,” I mean that, in spite of the confusion, errors, and stupidities you see around you, you must always keep close to your heart the narratives and symbols that once made the United States of America the hope of the World and that may yet have enough vitality to do so again. You may find it helpful to remember that, when the Chinese students at Tiananmen Square gave expression to their impulse to democracy, they fashioned a papier-mache model, for the whole World to see, of the Statue of Liberty. Not a statue of Karl Marx, not the Eiffel Tower, not Buckingham Palace. The Statue of Liberty. It is impossible to say how moved Americans were by this event. However, one is compelled to ask, “Is there an American soul do dead that it could not generate a murmur (if not a cheer) of satisfaction for this use of a once-resonant symbol? Is there an American soul so shrouded in the cynicism and malaise created by Technopoly’s emptiness that it failed to be stirred by students reading along from the works of Thomas Jefferson in the streets of Prague in 1989? #RandolphHarris 21 of 22

Americans may forget, but others do not, that America dissent and protest during the Vietnam War may be the only case in history where public opinion forced government to change its foreign policy. Americans may forget, but others do not, that American invented the idea of public education for all citizens and have never abandoned it. And everyone knows, including Americans, that each day, to this hour, immigrants still come to America in hopes of finding relief from one kind of deprivation or another, while Americans are increasingly experiencing more deprivations of their own. Where wealth is concerned, the least-developed countries present the hardest cast. Can a capability advance as nanotechnology, based on molecular machinery, be of use in the developing nations? Yes. Agriculture is the backbone of the Third World economics of today, and agriculture is based on the naturally occurring molecular machines in wheat, rice, yams, and the like. The Third World is short on equipment and skill. (It often has governmental problems as well, but that is another story.) Molecular manufacturing can make equipment inexpensive enough for the poor to buy or for aid agencies to give way. This included equipment for making more equipment, so dependency could be reduced. As for skill, basic molecular manufacturing will require little labour of any kind, and a little skill will go a long way. As the technology advances, more and more of the products can be easy-to-use smart materials Molecular manufacturing will enable the poorest countries to bypass the difficult and dirty process of the industrial revolution. It can make products that are less expensive and easier to use than yams or rice or goats or water buffalo. And with products like inexpensive super-computers, with huge databases of writing and animation viewed through 3-D colour displays, it can even help spread knowledge. Nanotechnology’s role in helping the poorest nations will not be on the minds of the first developers—they will be in government and commercial labs in the wealthiest nations, pursuing problems of concern to people there. History, though, is full of unintended consequences, and some are for the better. #RandolphHarris 22 of 22


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Love is for Fools to Fall Behind

Man is torn away from the primary union with nature, which characterizes terrestrial existence. Having at the same time reason and imagination, one is aware of one’s aloneness and separateness; of his powerlessness and lack of enlightenment; of the accidentalness of his birth. If he could not face this state of being for a second, he would not find new ties with his fellow man which replace old ones, regulated by instincts. Even if all his psychological needs were satisfied, he would experience his state of aloneness and individuation as a prison from which he had to break out in order to retain his sanity. In fact, the insane person is the one who has completely failed to establish any kind of union, and is imprisoned, even if he is not behind barred windows. The necessity to unite with other living beings, to be related to them, is an imperative need on the fulfillment in which man’s sanity depends. This need is behind all phenomena which constitute the whole gamut of intimate human relations, of all passions which are called love in the broadest sense of the word. The idea that man is a machine is not a new one. It is really only the scientific view possible; that is, a view based on experiment and observation. A very good definition of man’s mechanicalness was given in the so-called “psycho-physiology” of the second part of the nineteenth century. Man was regarded as incapable of any movement without receiving external impressions. Scientists of that time maintained that if it were possible to deprive man, from birth, of all outer and inner impressions and still keep him alive, he would not be able to make the smallest movement. #RandolphHarris 1 of 20

Such an experiment is, of course, impossible even with an animal, because the process of maintaining life—breathing, eating, and so on—will produce all sorts of impressions which will start different reflectory movements first, and then awaken the moving center. However, this idea is interesting because it shows clearly that the activity of the machine depends on external impressions, and begins with responses to these impressions. Centers in the machine are perfectly adjusted to receive each its own kinds of impressions and to respond to them in a corresponding way. And when centers work rightly, it is possible to calculate the work of the machine and to foresee and foretell many future happenings and responses in the machines, as well as to study them and even direct them. However, unfortunately, centers, even in what is called a healthy and normal man, very rarely work as they should. The cause of this is that centers are made so that, in a certain way, they can replace one another. In the original plan of nature the purpose of this was, undoubtedly, to make work of centers continuous and to create a safeguard against possible interruptions in the work of the machine, because in some cases an interruption could be fatal. However, the capacity of centers to work for one another in an untrained and undeveloped machine—as all our machines only rarely works with each center doing its right work. Almost every minute one or another center leaves its own work and tried to do the work of another center which, in its turn, tries to do the work of a third center. #RandolphHarris 2 of 20

Centers can replace one another to a certain extent, but not completely, and inevitably in such cases they work in a much less effective way. For instance moving center can, up to a point, imitate the work of intellectual center, but it can only produce very vague and disconnected thoughts as, for example, in dreams and in daydreaming. In its turn, the intellectual center can work for the moving center. Try to write, for instance, about every letter you are going to write and how you will write it. You can make experiments of this kind in trying to use your mind to do something which your hands or your legs can do without its help: for instance, walking down a staircase noticing every movement, or do some habitual work with your hands, calculating and preparing every small movement by mind. You will immediately see how much more difficult the work will become, how much slower and how much more clumsy the intellectual center is than the moving center. You can see this also when you earn some kind of new movement—suppose you learn come kind of new movement—suppose you learn the use of the typewriter or any kind of new physical work—or take a soldier doing rifle drill with his Winchester rifle. For some time in all your (or his) movements, you will depend on the intellectual center, and only after some time will they begin to pass the moving center. #RandolphHarris 3 of 20

Everyone knows the relief when movements become habitual, when the adjustments become automatic, and when there is no need to think and calculate every movement all the time. This means that movement has passed to the moving center, where it normally belongs. The instinctive center can work for the emotional, and the emotional can occasionally work for all other centers. And in some cases the intellectual center has to work for the instinctive center, although it can only do a very small part of its work, the part which is connected with visible movements, such as the movement of the chest during breathing. It is very dangerous to interfere with normal functions of the instinctive centers, as for instance in artificial breathing, which is sometimes described as yogi breathing, and which never must be undertaken without the advice and observation of a competent and experienced teacher. Returning to the wrong works of centers, I must say that this fills up practically all our life. Our dull impressions, our vague impressions, our lack of impressions, our slow understanding of many things, very often our identifying and our considering, even our lying, all these depend on the wrong work of centers. The idea of the wrong work of centers does not enter into our ordinary thinking and ordinary knowledge, and we do not realize how much harm it does to us, how much energy we spend unnecessarily in this way, and the difficulties into which this wrong work of center leads us. #RandolphHarris 4 of 20

Insufficient understanding of the wrong work of our machine is usually connected with the false notion of our unity. When we understand how much divided we are in ourselves, we begin to realize the danger that can lie in the fact that one part of ourselves works instead of another part, without knowing it. In the way of self-study and self-observation it is necessary to study and observe only the right work of centers, but also the wrong work of centers. It is necessary to know all kinds of wrong work in the particular features of the wrong work belonging to particular individuals. It is impossible to know oneself without knowing one’s defects and wrong features. Therefore, you cannot love someone until you know them, so talking and establishing a relationship is very important. And, in addition to general defects belonging to everyone, each of us has one’s own particular defects belonging only to oneself, and they also have to be studied at the right time. The idea that man is a machine brought into motion by external influences is really and truly a scientific idea. What science does not know is: FIRST, that the human machine does not work up to its standard, and actually works much below its normal standards; that is, not with its full powers, not with all its parts; and SECOND, that in spite of many obstacles it is capable of developing and creating for itself quite different standards of receptivity and action. #RandolphHarris 5 of 20

Humans are a lot like machines and machines can sometimes experience conflicting demands. Also Human nature and society can have conflicting demands, and hence a whole society can be sick, is an assumption which was made very explicitly by Dr. Freud. Some adaptive mechanisms are simple and work without agents’ being aware of consequences for others. An example is the network externalities of fax machines, where each new machine makes all machines more valuable by increasing the pool of others to which they can connect. Once enough users have purchased fax machines, the spread of fax becomes self-reinforcing. Other mechanisms are elegant accomplishments of human intellect, such as the World propagation of easy computer cryptography systems by members of subcultures intent on fostering individual liberty at the expense of government potency. Adaptive interactions are, in fact, a major raison d’etre of the Information Revolution. Improvements in processing, storage, transmission, and sensing make it possible for us to know the state of a system with far greater speed and precision. We want this knowledge because it allows us to be more adaptive, and that in turn can vastly increase performance. Antilock brakes allow adaptation to road conditions at a time scale faster than native human capabilities permit. Financial networks allow buying and selling based on global knowledge of price movements that could not earlier be assembled. Effects of military attacks can be known from sensors and satellites, allowing adjustments in later attacks. #RandolphHarris 6 of 20

Effects of policies in business and government can be assessed much more accurately and quickly, allowing for adjustments in later attacks. Effects of policies in business and government can be assessed much more accurately and quickly, allowing for adjustments to policies (such as monetary rates, inventory acquisitions, or licenses of new pharmaceuticals) that were unthinkable in previous generations. Much of the promise of the Information Revolution rests on the possibility of increasing the pace of adaptation in our (often complex) social and technical system. It is ironic that exploiting the promise of short-run possibilities for better prediction and control (such as linking financial markets) can create longer-run difficulties of prediction and control (such as global propagation of financial crises). However, the cumulative effects are clear. The exploitation of new information technology to create desirable adaptation increases the linkages that foster systemic complexity. Some variety is lost in the standardization of protocols that is needed for effective communication. The gain in the breadth and depth of interaction that results allows a large diversity of actors to be part of the same Complex Adaptive System, thereby increasing the opportunities for adaptation and the level of interdependence. The Information Revolution engenders Complex Adaptive Systems for reasons that we can now see are intrinsic. To secure the benefits (and avoid the pitfalls) of this enormous change, designers of every kind of enterprise, public or private, need a framework that captures the fundamental relationships of information to complexity and adaptation. #RndolphHarris 7 of 20

In the United States of America and most rich democracies, wave conflict is usually subtler than in the less affluent World. However, it is there nonetheless. It appears at many different levels, ranging from energy policy and transportation to corporate regulation and, above all, education Industrial America was built on the back of inexpensive fossil fuels and an immense infrastructure for distributing energy around the country. Costly and overdependent on imported oil and gas, the American energy-distribution system includes 175,000 miles of electrical transmission lines and 3 million miles of oil pipelines tht, because they are heavy fixed assets, are hard to alter in response to rapid change. The United States of America is rushing to build an advanced knowledge-based economy but remains saddled with an industrial-age, legacy energy system politically defended by some of the World’s biggest and most influential corporations against a growing, growling public demand for fundamental change in the system. The conflict is not usually posed in these terms, but it is, in fact, an example of Second Wave vs. Third Wave warfare. A parallel, related conflict is occurring over America’s transportation system, starting with its nearly 5 million miles of public highways, roads, and streets. These are traveled by 33 million commercial trucks operated by more than 600,000 companies that carry more than three quarters of all goods moved within the United States of America. #RandolphHarris 8 of 20

Together they make up a nearly $800 billion industry that, along with other means of transportation, equals fully 15 percent of the nation’s GDP. However, it is not just goods that are moved. People are, too. This huge infrastructure was a response to the mass society that grew up with mass production, urbanization and work patterns that required masses of workers to commute back and forth over the same pathways on uniform schedules. In 2020, some 130 million Americans wasted approximately 30 billion hours getting to and from their jobs—surely one of most counterproductive things Americans do. Today, as mass production has given way to increasingly customized, de-massified and decentralized knowledge production, larger numbers of people no longer work in city cores. Work patterns shift from fixed schedules to anything, any place, including home, again altering the way time and space are used. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DoT) looked into a Third Wave alternative. Termed “Intelligent transportation,” it called for the use of smart technology to increase the safety and capacity for existing highways. According to Government Technology, the DoT concluded that intelligent “freeway management systems” could “reduce accidents by 20 percent while permitting highways to handle as much as 25 percent more traffic at greater speeds.” Just computerizing traffic signals could decrease travel times by 20 percent and delays by 45 percent.” However, pressure from pour-more-concrete lobbies greatly outmatched the political influence of the nascent information-technology sector. #RandolphHarris 9 of 20

When President Trump signed an act allocating $300 billion for repairing and building roads, bridges, transit systems and railways, the amount set aside for intelligent systems was approximately ten percent. The U.S. transportation system, on which most business enterprises directly or indirectly depend, is still gridlocked by politically powerful triad of oil companies, car manufacturers and often corrupt highway-construction firms. Thus, while America’s communications system has introduced a dazzling succession of innovation, making it possible to distribute knowledge in ways never before possible, Americans are still denied energy and transportation systems that would be more efficient, safer and cleaner. These key elements of America’s infrastructure—and their component subsystems—are de-synchronized and fought over by vested industrial-age interests and breakthrough innovators advancing the knowledge-based wealth system. Wave conflict again. A similar pattern can be seen in many struggles over business practices. For example, a battle over the way stock options are accounted had pitted the influential Financial Accounting Standards Board, or Fazbee—which has traditionally favored tangible over intangible assets—against fledgling knowledge-based firms, making it harder for the latter to attract both capital and talented employees. #RandolphHarris 10 of 20

These are just snapshots of the low-intensity wave warfare now found in almost all American institutions as they attempt to come to terms with high speed technological and social change. Nowhere is the outcome of this conflict more important than in America’s schools. In observing the quality of thinking in alienated man, it is striking to see how this intelligence has developed and how his reason has deteriorated. He takes his reality for granted; he wants to eat it, consume it, touch it, manipulate it. He does not even ask what is behind it, why things are as the future is concerned—apres nous le deluge! Even from the nineteenth century to our day, there seems to have occurred an observable increase in stupidity, if by this we mean the opposite to reason, rather than to intelligence. In spite of the fact that everybody reads the daily paper religiously, there is an absence of understanding of the meaning of political events which is truly frightening, because our intelligence helps us produce weapons which our reason is not capable of controlling. Indeed, we have the know-how, but we do not have the know-why, nor the know-what-for. We have seen examples of what principles guide strategic decisions. We can summarize these principles with a few morals” from our tales. The story of hot hand told us that in strategy, no less than in physics, “For every action we take, there is a reaction.” We do not live and act in a vacuum. Therefore, we cannot assume that when we change our behaviour everything else will remain unchanged. #RandolphHarris 11 of 20

De Gaulle’s success in negotiations suggests that “the stuck wheel gets the grease.” You may have heard this expression as the “squeaky wheel”—a stuck wheel needs even more grease. Of course, sometimes it gets replaced. However, being stubborn is not always easy, especially when one has to be more stubborn than an obstinate adversary. The tale from the Gulag and the story of belling the cat demonstrate the difficulty of obtaining outcomes that require coordination and individual sacrifice. The example of trade policy highlights the danger of solving problems piece by piece. In technology races no less than in sailboat races, those who trail tend to employ more innovative strategies; the leaders tend to imitate the followers. Tennis and tax audits point out the strategic advance of being unpredictable. Such behaviour may also have the added advantage that it makes life just a little more interesting. We could go on offering more examples and drawing morals from them, but this is not the best way to think methodically about strategic games. That is better done by approaching the subject from a different angle. We pick up the principles—for example, commitment, cooperation, mixing—one at a time. In each instance, we select examples that bear centrally on that issue, until the principle is clear. Then you will have a chance to apply the principle in the case studies that end each report. We are also beginning to see the rise of “self-starting” teams or groups. Rather than being handed an assignment from above, they are typically drawn together by the electronic network. These “information clusters” go beyond even the skunkwork in their antihierarchial nature. #RandolphHarris 12 of 20

They spring up when people intensely interested in a common problem find one another electronically and begin to exchange information across departmental lines, irrespective of either geography or rank. So long as it is compatible with a very general statement of the corporation’s goals, the tea sets its own objectives, often through democratic exchange. For example, in David Stone’s engineering management group at Digital Equipment Corporation, members dispersed around the World hold an electronic “conference” in which each team member puts forward her or his draft objectives. Each person is then required by Mr. Stone to comment on each other’s objectives with respect to whether they believe them or not, whether they are appropriate, and what support might be needed from that person that should be incorporated in their objectives. After a month and a half of this dialogue, they each rewrite them, based on the input, and they now have created a shared set, a team set, of objectives.” The process, antibureaucratic to its roots, can function only in an atmosphere that gives individuals considerable autonomy. The result can be a chain reaction of creativity. Because of this, such units are most common where competitive innovation is highest. As electronic nets spread and link flex-firms together, such self-start units will spring up, even across company lines. #RandolphHarris 13 of 20

To manage the high diversity of the flex-firm will require new styles of leadership wholly alien to the bureaucrat-manager. Senior officials will be far less homogenous. Instead of lookalike (and think-alike) executive from central casting, the power group in the flex-firm will be heterogenous, individualist, antibureaucratic, impatient, opinionated, and as a group, probably far more creative than today’s bureaucratic committees. Instead of neat lines of authority, the flex-firm presents a far more complex, transient, and fuzzy picture. A CEO may have to deal with what, from today’s bureaucratic perspective, may appear to be motely mixture of tribal chieftains, commissars, egotistical divas, smart and self-important barons, cheerleaders, silent technocrats, Holy Roller-style preachers, and fam-firm patriarchs or matriarchs. Pulsing organizations, for example, need executives who can lead small organizations as well as large—or else they need an orderly system of succession that permits control to be handed off to leaders with different skills, depending upon the phase in which the organization finds itself. In firms where the checkerboard and commissar principles are used, dual lines of communication compete. In the checkerboard, both lines terminate in the CEO’s office. In the commissar arrangement, the two lines terminate in different places—one carrying reports to the CEO; the other, say, directly to the board. All arrangements that affect the flow of information allocated or reallocate power. In baronial organizations of the CEO must continually negotiate with his or her executive barons, playing them off against one another to avoid being neutered or ousted by a coalition of them. #RandolphHarris 14 of 20

Leadership under such conditions is less likely to be impersonal and spuriously “scientific,” and more dependent, instead, on intuitive sensitivity, empathy, along with guile, guts, and plenty of old-fashioned emotion. The flex-firm becomes increasingly political, in the sense that managing multiple constituencies is political. It is political in the sense that conscious application of power is political. Power—the control of company money and information backed by the force of the law—is shifting out from under those with legal or formal position and toward those with natural authority based on knowledge and certain psychological and political skills. Allan Bloom, in his book “The Closing of the American Mind,” confronts the question by making a serious complaint against the academy. His complaint is that most American professors have lost their nerve. They have become moral relativists, incapable of providing their students with a clear understanding of what is right thought and proper behaviour. Moreover, they are also intellectual relativists, refusing to defend their own culture and no longer committed to preserving and transmitting the best that has been thought and said. Mr. Bloom’s solution is that we do back to the basics of Western thought. He does not care if students know who Ginger Rogers and Groucho Marx are. He wants us to teach our students what Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Saint Augustine, and other luminaries have had to say on the great ethical and epistemological questions. #RandolphHarris 15 of 20

Mr. Bloom believes that by acquainting themselves with great books our students will acquire a moral and intellectual foundation that will give meaning and texture to their lives. Though there is nothing especially original in this, Mr. Bloom is a serious education philosopher, which is to say, unlike Mr. Hirsch, he is a moralist who understands that Technopoly is a malevolent force requiring opposition. However, he has not found many supporters. Those who reject Mr. Blood’s idea have offered several arguments against it. The first is that such a purpose for education is elitists: the mass of students would not find the great story of Western civilization inspiring, are too deeply alienated from the past to find it so, and would therefore have difficulty connecting the “best that has been thought and said” to their own struggles to find meaning in their lives. A second argument, coming from what is called a “leftist” perspective, is even more discouraging. In a sense, it offers a definition of what is meant by elitism. It assets that the “story of Western civilization” is a partial, biased, and oppressive one. It is not the story of Black Americans, Indigenous Americans, Hispanics, women, homosexuals—of any people who are not European American males of Judeo-Christian heritage. This claim denies that there is or can be a national culture, a narrative of organizing power and inspiring symbols which all citizens can identify with and draw sustenance from. If this is true, it means nothing less than that our national symbols have been drained of their power to unite, and that education must become a tribal affair; that is, each subculture must find its own story and symbols, and use them as the moral basis of education. #RandolphHarris 16 of 20

Standing somewhat apart from these arguments are, of course, religious educators, such as those in Catholic schools, who strive to maintain another traditional view—that learning is done for the greater glory of God, and more particularly, to prepare the young to embrace intelligently and gracefully the moral directives of the church. Whether or not such a purpose can be achieved in Technopoly is questionable, as many religious educators will acknowledge. The struggle itself is a sign that our repertoire of significant national, religious, and mythological symbols has been seriously drained of its potency. We are living at a time when all the once regnant World systems that have sustained (also distorted) Western intellectual life, from theologies to ideologies, are taken to be in severe collapse. This leads to a mood of skepticism, an agnosticism of judgment, sometimes a World-weary nihilism in which even the most conventional minds begin to question both distinctions of value and the value of distinctions. Into this void comes that Technopoly story, with its emphasis on progress without limits, rights without responsibilities, and technology without cost. The Technopoly story is without a moral center. It puts in its place efficiency, interest, and economic advance. It promises Heaven on Earth through the conveniences of technological progress. It casts aside all traditional narratives and symbols that suggest stability and orderliness, and tells, instead, of a life of skills, technical expertise, and the ecstasy of consumption. Its purpose to produce functionaries for an ongoing Technopoly. #RandolphHarris 17 of 20

It answers Mrs. Bloom by saying that the story of Western civilization is irrelevant; it answers the political left by saying there is indeed a common culture whose name is Technopoly and whose key symbol is now the computer, toward which there must be neither irreverence nor blasphemy. It even answers Mrs. Hirsch by saying that there are items on his list that, if thought about too deeply and taken too seriously, will interfere with the progress of technology. I grant that it is somewhat unfair to expect educators, by themselves, to locate stories tht would reaffirm our national culture. Such narratives must come to them, to some degree, from the political sphere. If our politics is symbolic impoverished, it is difficult to imagine how teachers can provide a weighty purpose to education. The President calls Americans to war for the sake of their “life-style.” For the sake of your life-style, you must have pride in America and buy American products. The Secretary of State requests that Americans fights wars to protect their jobs. Well, this is not naked aggression of little Hitler. It is the truth. You can only stay dominate through means of force and conquest. America has a decree of God that affords Americans with manifest destiny and to spread Christianity from sea to shining sea. You are not going to fulfill that promise by giving all your money and jobs away to other nations and buying their goods and/or services. Removing God from America and ignoring your responsibility toward Manifest Destiny and the supremacy of America and Americans will lead to your failure. You must worship that flag, as it is our national symbol. Pledge your allegiance to it daily. #RandolphHarris 18 of 20

All of those men, women, children, slaves, and horses did not die in the Revolutionary War for people with alternative lifestyles to give the country away. Going to war is not unjustified. With the end of the Cold War, our political leaders now struggle, as ever before, to find a coherent way to speak, a straight path to follow, and a vital narrative and accompanying symbols that would awaken a national spirit and a sense of resolve. The citizens themselves struggle as well. Having drained many of their traditional symbols of serious meaning, they resort, somewhat pitifully, to sporting yellow ribbons as a means of symbolizing their fealty to cause. After the war, the yellow ribbons will fade from sight, but the question of who we are and what we represent will remain. It is possible that the only symbol left to use will be an F-15 fighter plane guided by an advanced computer system? In many cases, the uneducated, the lazy, the severely mentally ill have little time or energy to devote to human relations or personal development. Food, shelter, pleasures of the flesh, and security are not everything, but they are basic. Material abundance that is obtained by unpunished criminal activity is perhaps the best-known way to build a contempt for material things and a concern for what lies beyond. The idea of brining everyone in the World up to a decent standard of living, brain activity and physical ability looks very utopian today. The World’s poor are numerous and the wealth are few, and yet the Earth’s resources are already stained by our crude industrial and agricultural technologies. #RandolphHarris 19 of 20

For the 1970 and 1980s, with a growing awareness of the environmental impact of human population and pollution, many people have begun to wrestle with the specter of declining wealth. Few have allowed themselves to consider what it might be like to live in a World with far greater material wealth because it has seemed impossible. Any discussion of such things will inevitably have a whiff of the 1950s or 1960s about it: Gee whiz, we can have supercars and Better Living Through (a substitute for conventional) Chemistry! In the long run, unless population growth is limited, it will be impossible to maintain a decent standard of living for everyone. This is a basic fact, and to ignore it would be to destroy our future. Yet within sight is a time in which the World’s poorest can be raised to a material standard of living that would be the envy of the World’s richest today. The key is efficient, low-cost production of high-quality goods. Whether this will be used to achieve the goals we describe is more than just a question of technology. This is the reason for the existential insignificance of the experience of justification or forgiveness of sins in comparison with the striving for sanctification and the transformation of one’s own being as well as one’s World. A new beginning is demanded and must be attempted. This is the way in which the courage to be as part of the productive process takes the anxiety of guilt into itself. #RandolphHarris 20 of 20

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Young—Stay in School!

War, it will be seen, not only accomplishes the necessary destruction, but it accomplishes it in a psychologically acceptable way. In principle it would be quite simple to waste the surplus labour of the World by building temples and pyramids, by digging holes and filling them up again, or even by producing vast quantities of goods and then destroying them. However, this would provide only the economic and not the emotional basis for a hierarchical society. What is concerned here is not the morale of the mases, whose attitude is unimportant so long as they are kept steadily at work, but the morale of the Party itself. Even the humblest Party member is expected to be competent, industrious, and even intelligent within narrow limits, but it is also necessary that one should be a credulous and ignorant fanatic whose prevailing moods are fear, hatred, adulation, and orgiastic triumph. In other words it is necessary that one should have the mentality appropriate to a state of war. It does not matter whether the war is actually happening, and, since no decisive victory is possible, it does not matter whether the war is going well or badly. All that is needed is that a state of war should exist. The difficulties one has in observing four important manifestations—lying, imagination, the expression of negative emotions, and unnecessary talking—will show man his utter mechanicalness, and the impossibility even of struggling against this mechanicalness without help, that is, without new knowledge and without actual assistance. For even if a man has received certain materials, he forgets to use it, forgets to observe himself; in other words, he falls asleep again and must always be awaken. #RandolphHarris 1 of 17

This “falling asleep” has certain definite features of its own, unknow, or at least unregistered and unnamed, in ordinary psychology. These features need special study. There are two of them. The first is called identification. “Identifying” or “identification” is a curious state in which man passes more than half of his life. He “identifies” with everything: with what he says, what he feels, what he believes, what he does not believe, what he wishes, what he does not wish, what attracts him, what repels him. Everything absorbs him, and he cannot separate himself from the idea, the feeling, or the object that absorbed him. This means that in the state of identification man is incapable of looking impartially on the object of his identification. It is difficult to find the smallest thing with which man is unable to “identify.” At the same time, in a state of identification, man has even less control over his mechanical reactions than at any other time. Such manifestations as lying, imagination, the expression of negative emotions, and constant talking need identification. They cannot exist without identification. If man could get rid of identification, he could get rid of many useless and foolish manifestations. Identification, its meaning, causes, and results, is extremely well described in the Philokalia. However, no trace of understanding of it can be found in modern psychology. It is a quite forgotten “psychological discovery.” The second sleep-producing state, akin to identification, is considering. Actually, “considering” is identification with people. It is a state in which man constantly worries about what other people think of him; whether they give him his due, whether they admire him enough, and so on, and so on. #RandolphHarris 2 of 17

“Considering” plays a very important part in everyone’s life, but in some people it becomes an obsession. All their lives are filled with considering—that is, worry, doubt, and suspicion—and there remains no place for anything else. The myth of the “inferiority complex” and other “complexes” is created by the vaguely realized but not understood phenomenon of “identification” and “considering.” Both “identification” and “considering” must be observed most seriously. Only full knowledge of them can diminish them. If one cannot see them in oneself, one can easily see them in other people. However, one must remember that one in no way differs from others. In this sense all people are equal. Returning now to what was said before, we must try to understand more clearly how the development of man must begin, and in what way self-study can help this beginning. From the very start we meet with a difficulty in our language. For instance, we want to speak about man from the point of view of evolution. However, the word “man” in ordinary language does not admit of any variation or any gradation. Man who is never conscious and never suspects it, man who is struggling to become conscious, man who is fully conscious—it is all the same of our language. It is always “man” in every case. In order to avoid this difficult and to help the student in classifying his new ideas, the system divides man into seven categories. The first three categories are practically on the same level.  Man no. 1, a man in whom the moving or instinctive centers predominate over the intellectual and emotional, that is, Physical man. Man no.2, a man in whom the emotional center predominates over the intellectual, moving, and instinctive. Emotional man. Man no. 3, a man in whom the intellectual center predominates over the emotional, moving, and instinctive. Intellectual man. #RandolphHarris 3 of 17

In ordinary life we meet only these three categories of man. Each one of us and everyone we know is any of the three personality types listed above. There are higher categories of man, but men are not born already belonging to these higher categories. They are all born in the first category, the second category, the third category, and can reach higher categories only through school. Man no. 4 is not born as such. He is a product of school culture. He differs from man no. 1, no. 2, and no. 3 by his knowledge of himself, by his understanding of his position, and, as it is expressed technically, by his having acquired a permanent center of gravity. This last means that the idea of acquiring unity, consciousness, permanent “I,” and will—that is, the idea of his development—has already become for him more important than his other interests. It must be added to the characteristics of man no. 4, that his functions and center are more balanced, in a way in which they could not be balanced without work on himself, according to school principles and methods. Man no. 5 is a man who acquired unity and self-consciousness. He is different from ordinary man, because in him, one of the higher centers already works, and he has many functions and powers that an ordinary man—that is, man no. 1, 2, and 3—does not possess. Man no. 6 is a man who has acquired objective consciousness. Another higher center works in him. He possesses many more new faculties and powers, beyond the understanding of an ordinary man. Man no. 7 is a man who has attained all that a man can attain. He has a permanent “I” and free will. He can control all the states of consciousness in himself and he already cannot lose anything he has acquired. According to another description, he is immortal within the limits of the solar system. #RandolphHarris 4 of 17

Understanding of this division of man into seven categories is very important, for the division has very many applications in all possible ways of studying human activity. It gives, in the hands of those who understand it, a very strong and very fine instrument or tool for the definition of manifestations which, without it, are impossible to define. Take, for instance, the general concepts of religion, art, science, and philosophy. Beginning with religion, we can see at once that there must be a religion of man no. 1, that is all forms of fetishism, no matter how they are called; a religion of man no. 2, that is emotional, sentimental religion, passing sometimes into fanaticism, the crudest forms of intolerance, persecution of heretics, and so on; a religion of man no. 3, that is theoretical, scholastic religion, full of argument about words, forms, rituals, which become more important than anything else; a religion of man no. 4, that is the religion of man who works for self-development; religion of man no. 5, that is the religion of a man who has attained unity and can see and know many things tht man no. 1, 2, and 3 can neither see not know; then a religion of man no. 6 and a religion of man no. 7, about neither of which can we know anything. The same division applies to art, science, and philosophy. There must be an art of man no. 1, an art of man no. 2, an art of man no. 3; science of man no. 1, science of man no. 2, science of man no. 3, science of man no. 4, and so on. You must try to find examples of these for yourselves. #RandolphHarris 5 of 17

This expansion of concepts greatly enlarges our possibility of finding right solutions to many of our problems. And this means that the system gives us the possibility of studying a new language, that is, new for us, which will connect for us ideas of different categories, which are, in reality, united, and divide ideas of seemingly the same categories which are, in reality, different. The division of the word “man” into seven words—man no. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, with all that follows—is an example of this new language. This gives us the fourth definition of psychology as the study of a new language. And this language is a universal language, which people sometimes try to find or invent. The expression, “a universal language” or “philosophical language,” must not be taken in a metaphorical sense. The language is universal in the same sense as mathematical symbols are universal. And besides that it includes in itself all that people can think about. Even the few words of this language which have been explained, give you the possibility of thinking and speaking with more precision than is possible in ordinary language, using any of the existing scientific or philosophical terminologies and nomenclatures. It has become widely accepted that a major source of prediction difficulty in the contemporary Information Revolution is the multiplicity of forces that are interacting. For example, the hard lesion has been learned that technologies are adopted not only as a function of cost, but also as a function of numbers of others adopting. A technology with a small market lead may become dominant even when it is not superior in a quality, as in the stories of DVD versus Blue Ray, and the QWERTY keyboard. #RandolphHarris 6 of 17

Effectiveness of technology has been observed sometimes to depend on deployment of other technologies, such as Internet service provision depending on the installed base of telephones. There have been striking cases of process surprise, such as a way of replacing carbon paper (xerography) that can upset the internal security of autocratic nations, as well as alter the conduct the internal security of autocratic nations, as well as alter the conduct of basic office procedures. And cultural variables have been shown to set a controlling context for technical developments, as in rural areas of developing countries that may leapfrog wired communications to go directly to wireless, or when countries with nonalphabetic languages have sharply different approaches to word processing. Reaping the benefits of new technology has turned out often to require collateral resources, so that innovations imagined to favor equality could turn out to accelerate differences between social classes. We have learned that absence in electronic mail socially controlling status cues can unleash embarrassing episodes of “flaming,” in which participants write things they would never say to a recipient’s face. Such lessons have taught us all that virtually every important force in collective life affects the way the Information Revolution plays out. Scale economics, technological preconditions, national developmental sequencing, social status, economic inequality, internal security postures, cultural context, and many more forces work to condition the development of information technology impacts. #RandolphHarris 7 of 17

This is not unique to the contemporary episode in the growth of information technology. The earlier episode of the Information Revolution that began with movable type also had epochal consequences. The Chinese Empire, the Islamic states, and the Christian West each gave its own distinctive shape to the movable type revolution in printing. Roughly speaking, the Chinese used printing to reinforce central authority, while Islam suppressed the technology. The Western case had been highly interesting to scholars because of its many indirect effects including contributions to the promotion of religious conflict and the rise of nation-states. These are just the kind of nonadditive contextual effects that distinguish complex dynamic regimes. If complexity is often rooted in patterns of interaction among agents, then we might expect systems to exhibit increasingly complex dynamics when changes occur that intensify interaction among their elements. This, of course, is exactly what the Information Revolution is doing: reducing the barriers to interaction among processes that were previously isolated from each other in time or space. Information can be understood as a mediator of interaction. Decreasing the costs of its propagation and storage inherently increases possibilities for interaction effects. An Information Revolution is therefore likely to beget a complexity revolution. Many educators base their philosophies on narratives rich in symbols which they respected and which they understood to be integral to the stories they wanted education to reveal. It is, therefore, time to ask, What story does American education wish to tell now? #RandolphHarris 8 of 17

In a growing Technopoly, what do we believe education is for? The answers are discouraging, and one of them can be inferred from any television commercial urging the young to stay in school. The commercial will either imply or state explicitly that education will help the preserving students to get a good job. And that is it. Well, not quite. There is also the idea that we educate ourselves to compete with the Japanese or the Germans in an economic struggle to be number one. Neither of these purposes is, to say that least, grand or inspiring. The story of each suggests that the United States of America is not a culture but merely an economy, which is the last refuge of an exhausted philosophy of education. This belief, I might add, is precisely reflected in the President’s Commission Report, A Nation at Risk, where you will find a definitive expression of the idea that education is an instrument of economic policy and of very little else. We may get a sense of the desperation of the educator’s search for a more gripping story by using the “television commercial test.” Try to imagine what sort of appeals might be effectively made on TV commercial to persuade parents to support schools. (Let us, to be fair, sidestep appeals that might be made directly to students themselves, since the youth of any era are disinclined to think schooling a good idea, whatever the reasons advance for it. See the “Seven Ages of Man” passage as in As You Like It.) Can you imagine, for example, what such a commercial would be like if Jefferson or John Dewey prepared it? “Your children are citizens in a democratic society,” the commercial might say. “Their education will teach them how to be valuable citizens by refining their capacity for reasoned thought and strengthening their will to protect their liberties. As for their jobs and professions, that will be considered only at a ‘late and convenient hour’” (to quote John Stuart Mill, who would be pleased to associate himself with Jefferson’s or Dewey’s purpose.) #RandolphHarris 9 of 17

Is there anyone today who would find this a compelling motivation? Some, perhaps, but hardly enough to use it as the basis of a national program. John Locke’s commercial would, I imagine, be even less appealing. “Your children must stay in school,” he might say, “because there they will learn to make their bodies slaves of their minds. They will learn to control their impulses, and how to find satisfaction and even excitement in life of the mind. Unless they accomplish this, they can be neither civilized nor literate.” How many would applaud this mission? Indeed, who could we use to speak such words—Barbara Bush? Paris Hilton? Donald Trump? Even the estimable Dr. Bill Cosby would hardly be convincing. The guffaws would resound from Maine to California. There is a comprehensive purpose to education. Literacy is defined as the capacity to understand and use the words, dates, aphorisms, and names that form the basis of communication among the educated in our culture. It is, of course, an expected outcome of any education that students become acquainted with the important references of their culture. Even Rousseau, who would have asked his students to read only one book, Robinson Crusoe (so that they would learn how to survive in the wild), would probably have expected them to “pick up” the names and sayings and dates that made up the content of the educated conversation of their time. The problem with the present time is that the condition of technology-generated information is so long, varied, and dynamic that it is not possible to organize into a coherent educational program. #RandolphHarris 10 of 17

To some, making a list of cultural heroes and books that qualify one as educated, is not a solution to the problem of information glut. It is therefore considered to be incoherent. However, it also confuses a consequence of education with a purpose. When we answer the question, “What is an educated person?” We left unanswered the question, “What is an education for?” Young me, for example, will learn how to make lay-up shots when they play basketball. To be able to make them is part of the definition of what good players are. However, they do not play basketball for that purpose. There is usually a broader, deeper, and more meaningful reason for wanting to play—to assert their manhood, to please their fathers, to be acceptable to their peers, even for the sheer aesthetic pleasure of the game itself. What you have to do to be a success must be addressed only after you have found a reason to be successful. In Technopoly, this is very hard to do. The skunkworks organization—here a team is handed a loosely specified problem or goal, given resources, and allowed to operate outside the normal company rules. The skunkworks group thus ignores both the cubbyholes and the official channels—id est, the specialization and hierarchy of the existing corporate bureaucracy. Tremendous energies are released; information is exchanged at high speed outside normal channels. Members develop strong emotion toward their work and one another, and very often, enormously complex projects are completed in record time. #RandolphHarris 11 of 17

The new product game when BMW wanted to design a car that would appeal to young people, it put together a team—average age twenty-seven—and turned it loose. In the words of one young engineer: “It’s incredible how the company…gave us the freedom to do it our way.” When Nippon Electric Company (NEC) developed its PC8000, it turned the project over to a group of former microprocessors sales engineers who had no previous experience with PCs. Says the project head: “We were given the go-ahead from top management to proceed with the project, provided we would develop the product by ourselves and also be responsible for manufacturing, selling, and serving it on our own.” IBM’s PC, which became the industry standard, was developed by a nearly autonomous group working in Boca Raton, Florida. Apart from quarterly reviews by corporate headquarters in Armonk, New York, the team was free to operate as it wished. It was also permitted to break normal corporate policy about buying from outside suppliers. Similar examples can be found at Apple, Hewlett-Packard, Xerox, and other high-tech firms. The skunkwork format is inherently and militantly antibureaucratic. A project team takes on a self-organization character as it is driven to a state of “zero information”—where prior knowledge does not apply…Left to stew, the process begins to create its own dynamic order. The project team begins to operate like a start-up company—it takes initiatives and risk, and develops an independent agenda. Successful skunkworks develop their own leadership, based on skill and competence rather than formal rank. These newly empowered leaders often come into direct frontal conflict with the formal leader appointed by the bureaucracy to initiate and oversee the skunkwork unit. #RandolphHarris 12 of 17

A new way of life based on revolutionary wealth is still taking form in America—plug-in/plug-out jobs, glitter and hype, speed, commercialism, 24/7 entertainment, speed, cleaner air, dirtier television, rotten schools, speed, a broken health system and longer life, speed again, perfect landings on Mars, information overload, surplus complexity, reduced racism, hyper-diets and hyper-kids Oh, yes, and still more speed. Add to this kaleidoscope the multiplying contradictions in America life today. Viagra commercials and anti-abortion marchers. Free markets—but tariffs and subsidies that favor U.S. firms. Americans who are provincials—bad at languages, uninterested in other cultures. However, hooray for globalization! Outsides do not know what to make of all this noisy disarray. In the words of Dominique Moisi, the French foreign-affairs experts, “It’s not that we are so much against America, it is that we cannot understand the evolution of that country.” However, neither do most Americans. And outsiders do not know that the Americans do not know. It might help to think about America not simply as the World’s most powerful nation-states, which it currently, but as the World’s greatest social and economic laboratory. It is the main place in the World were new ideas and new ways of life are eagerly tried—and sometimes pushed to stupid, even cruel extremes—before they are rejected. Experiments are under way in this lab not merely with technologies but with culture and the arts, patterns in pleasures of the flesh, family structures, diets, and sports, start-up religions and brand-new business models. #RandolphHarris 13 of 17

Simultaneously, the United States of America is experimenting with all three of the deep fundamentals of wealth. That is what all the speed is about—want it is why so many people yearn for a less frenzied time. It is why machines may need to work faster and people more slowly. America is experimenting as well with space and how it is divided up—witness the growth permeability of economic boundaries. And above all, of course, it is experimenting with countless new ways of turning data, information and knowledge into wealth. The United States of America is the place where mistakes are allowed to happen—and sometimes lead to economically or socially valuable breakthroughs. It is where almost any failure is redeemable and where “comeback kids” are admired rather than shunned (sometimes when they should not be). Great laboratories re free to make mistakes. If they do not risk error, they are not reaching out for the future. And America is. The trouble is that no everyone likes to live in a laboratory—or next door to one. Lab mistakes can cost people jobs, influence, power—even lives. Many Americans fear change and yearn for a return to the so-called good old days of the early 1950s, when America was a Second Wave country and the Third Wave was barely visible. Conveniently forgetting the backbreaking physical labour, racial hatred and subjugating of women that still characterized the U.S. economy and society during those supposedly “good” times, and legitimately afraid of losing their jobs, position, prestige or prominence, they derogate the present and fear—and resist—the future. The result, therefore, inside America, no less than in China, Japan, Europe and elsewhere, is wave conflict. #RandolphHarris 14 of 17

When a revolutionary wealth-creation system arises, one of the first things it does it create counter-revolutionaries. The late banker Walter Wriston, head of the White House Economic Advisory Policy Board under President Reagan, put it bluntly: “Whenever there is a sift in how wealth is created, the old elites give up their position and a new group of people raise and control society. We’re in the middle of that right now.” What he did not point out is that “old elites” do not give up without a fight. Game theory can be dangerous to your health. Late one night, after a conference in Jerusalem, two American economists found a licensed taxicab and gave the driver directions to their hotel. Immediately recognizing them as American tourists, the driver refused to turn on his meter; instead, he proclaimed his love for Americans and promised them a lower fare then the meter. Naturally, they were somewhat skeptical of this promise. Why should this stranger offer to change less than meter when they were willing to pay the metered fare? How would they even know whether or not they were being overcharged? (If the driver wanted to prove that he was going to charge less than the meter, he could have turned on the meter and asked and then charged 80 percent the price. The fact that he did not should have told something about his intentions.) On the other hand, they had not promised to pay the driver anything more than what would be on the meter. If they were to start bargaining and the negotiations broke down, they would have to find another taxi. Their theory was that once they arrived at the hotel, their bargaining would be much stronger. And taxis were hard to find. #RandolphHarris 15 of 17

They arrived. The driver demanded 2,500 Israeli New Shekels ($724.18). Who knew what fare was fair? Because people generally bargain in Israel, they protested and counter-offered 2,200 shekels. The driver was outraged. He claimed that it would be impossible to get from there to here for that amount. Before negotiations could continue, he locked all the doors automatically and retraced the route at breakneck speed, ignoring traffic lights and pedestrians. Were they being kidnapped to Beirut? No. He returned to the original position and ungraciously kicked the two economists out of his cab, yelling, “See how far your 2,200 shekels will get you now.” They found another cab. This driver turned on his meter and 2,200 shekels later they were home. Certainly the extra time was not worth the 300 shekels to the economists. On the other hand, the story was well worth it. It illustrates the dangers of bargaining with those who have not yet read our essay. More generally pride and irrationality cannot be ignored. Sometimes, it may be better t be taken for a wife when it costs only two dimes. There is a second lesson to the story. Think of how much stronger their bargaining gaining position would have been if they had begun to discuss the price after getting out of the taxi. (of course, for hiring a taxi, this logic should be reversed. If you tell the driver where you want to go before getting in, you may find your taxi chasing after some other customer. Get in first, then say where you want to go.) #RandolphHarris 16 of 17

People have cried “Wolf!” before about new technologies leading to overwhelming abundance. It was said of nuclear power, and of steam power before it, and perhaps of water wheels, the horse, the plough, and the chipped rock. Molecular manufacturing is different because it is a new way to make almost anything, including more of the equipment needed to do the manufacturing. There has never been anything quite like this before. The basic argument for low-cost production is this: Molecular manufacturing will be able to make almost anything with little labor, land, or maintenance, with high productivity, and with modest requirements for materials and energy. Its products will themselves be extremely productive, as energy producers, as material collectors, and as manufacturing equipment. There has never been a technology with this combination of characteristics, so historical analogies must be used with care. Perhaps the best analogy is this: Molecular manufacturing will do for matter processing what the computer has done for information processing. There will always be limiting costs, because resources—whether energy, matter, or design skill—always have some alterative use. Cost will not fall to zero, but it seems that they could fall very low. Yet there is no society that does not put restrictions on resources. Out of an infinite plenty is created a host of artificial scarcities. It would obviously repay us to look into this matter, since we have already observed that although we live in the most affluent society ever know, the sense of deprivation and discomfort that pervades it is also unparalleled. #RandolphHarris 17 of 17

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The More One Thinks One is Free from Lying, the More One is in it

Flight into the home was only part of a general postwar retreat from the World—a flight that would have occurred without Baby and Child Care. The phenomena was established as a pattern after the September 11, 2001 attacks on US soil, which spawned many home renovations and renovation television programs. This was in response to the World seeming like a dangerous place and people wanting somewhere they can go and feel safe, comfortable, protected, and have a sophisticated environment. The pattern continued during the 2020 COVID pandemic. Only this time, houses got larger, became multigenerational, and outdoor living was seen as a major aspect of homeownership. Not only did people want to feel more comfortable at home, but they wanted space to work, party, and enjoy the great outdoors without leaving their home. No revolution produces total change—much of the old machinery is retained more or less intact. Those intimate with the machinery are in the best position to facilitate the rootling and redirection. We live in a culture that is preoccupied with tradition, with community, with relationships—with many things that would reinstate the validity of accumulated wisdom. From ordinary psychology, and from ordinary thinking, we know that the intellectual functions, thoughts, and so on, are controlled or produced by a certain center which we call “mind” or “intellect,” or “the brain.” And this is quite right. Only, to be fully right, we must understand that other functions are also controlled each by its own mind or center. #RandolphHarris 1 of 21

Thus, from the point of view of the system, there are four minds or centers which control our ordinary actions: intellectual mind, emotional mind, moving mind, and instinctive mind. In further references to them we shall call them centers. Each center is quite independent of the others, has its own sphere of action, its own powers, and its own ways of development. Centers, that is, their structure, capacities, strong sides, and defects, belong to essence. Their contents, that is, all that a center acquires, belong to personality. The contents of centers will be explained later. Personality is as equally necessary for the development of a man as is essence, only it must stand it its right place. This is hardly possible, because personality is full of wrong ideas about itself. It does not wish to stand in its right place, because its right place is secondary and subordinate; and it does not wish to know the truth about itself, for to know the truth will mean abandoning its falsely dominant position, and occupying the inferior position which rightly belongs to it. The wrong relative positions of essence and personality determine the present disharmonious state of man. And the only way to get out of this disharmonious state is by self-knowledge. To know oneself—this was the first principle and the first demand of old psychological schools. We sill remember these words, but have lost their meaning. We think that to know ourselves means to know our peculiarities, our desires, our tastes, our capacities, and our intentions, when in reality it means to know ourselves as machines, that is, to know the structure of one’s machine, its parts, functions of different parts, the conditions governing their work, and so on. #RandolphHarris 2 of 21

We must remember this in relation to ourselves and must remember this in relation to ourselves and must study our own machines as machines. The means of study is self-observation. There is no other way and no one can do this work for us. We must do it ourselves. However, before we must learn how to observe. I mean, we must understand the technical side of observation: we must know that it is necessary to observe different function and distinguish between them, remembering, at the same time, about different states of consciousness, about our sleep, and about the many “I’s” in us. Such observations will very soon give results. First of all a man will notice that he cannot observe everything he finds in himself impartially. Some thins may please him, and other things will annoy him, irritate him, even horrify him. And it cannot be otherwise. Man cannot study himself as a remote star, or as a curious fossil. Quite naturally he will like in himself what helps his development and dislike what makes his development more difficult, or even impossible. This means that very soon after starting to observe oneself, he will begin to distinguish useful features or and harmful features in oneself, that is, useful or harmful from the point of view of his possible self-knowledge, his possible awakening, his possible development. He will see sides of himself which can become conscious, and side which cannot become conscious and must be eliminated. In observing himself, he must always remember that his self-study is the first step towards his possible evolution. #RandolphHarris 3 of 21

Now we must see what are those harmful features that man finds in himself. Speaking in general, they are all mechanical manifestations. The first, as has already been said, is lying. Lying is unavoidable in mechanical life. No one can escape it, and the more one thinks that one is free from lying, the more one is in it. Life as it is could not exist without lying. However, from the psychological side, lying has a different meaning. It means speaking about things one does not know, and even cannot know, as though one knows and can know. You must understand that I do not speak from any moral point of view. We have not yet come to question of what is good, and what is bad, by itself. I speak only from a practical point of view, of what is useful and what is harmful to self-study and self-development. Starting in this way, man very soon learns to discover signs by which he can know harmful manifestations in himself. He discovers that the more he can control a manifestation, the less harmful it can be, and that the less he can control it, that is, the more mechanical it is, the more harmful it can become. When man understands this, he becomes afraid of lying, again not on moral grounds, but on the grounds that he cannot control his lying, an that lying controls him, that is, his other functions. The second dangerous feature he finds in himself is imagination. Very soon after starting his observation of himself he comes to the conclusion that the chief obstacle to observation is imagination. He wishes to observe something, but instead of that, imagination starts him on the same subject, and he forgets about observation. #RandolphHarris 4 of 21

Very soon he realizes that people ascribe to the word “imagination” a quite artificial and quite underserved meaning in the sense of creative or selective faculty. He realizes that imagination is a destructive faculty, that he can never control it, and that it always carries him away from his more conscious decisions in a direction in which he had no intention of going. Imagination is almost as bad as lying; it is, in fact, lying to oneself. Man starts to imagine something in order to please himself, and very soon he begins to believe what he imagines, or at least some of it. Further, or even before that, one finds many very dangerous effects in the expression of negative emotions.  The term “negative emotions” means all emotions of violence or depression: self-pity, anger, suspicion, fer, annoyance, boredom, mistrust, jealousy, and so one. Ordinarily, one accepts this expression of negative emotions as quite natural and even necessary. Very often people call it “sincerity.” Of course it has nothing to do with sincerity; it is simply a sign of weakness in man, a sign of bad temper and of incapacity to keep his grievances to himself. Man realizes this when he tries to oppose it. And by this he learns another lesson. He realizes that in relation to mechanical manifestations it is not enough to observe them, it is necessary to resist them, because without resisting them one cannot observe them. They happen so quickly, so habitually, and so imperceptibly, that one cannot notice them if one does not make sufficient efforts to create obstacles for them. #RandolphHarris 5 of 21

After the expression of negative emotions one notices in oneself or in other people another curious mechanical feature. This is talking. There is no harm in talking by itself. However, with some people, especially with those who notice it least, it really becomes a vice. They talk all the time, everywhere they happen to be, while working, while traveling, even while sleeping. They never stop talking to someone if there is someone to talk to, and if there is no one, they talk to themselves. This too must not only be observed, but resisted as much as possible. With unresisted talking one cannot observe anything, and all the results of a man’s observations will immediately evaporate in talking. When working with the mentally ill or dealing with the public in general, especially around the holidays, it is important to have impulse control. Impulse control is the degree to which a person can control the desire for immediate gratification or other; impulse control may be the single most important indicator of a person’s future adaptation in terms of number of friends, school performance and future employment. Our society is enmeshed in a major social transformation, driven in part by, and deriving much of its distinctive character from the amazing advances in technologies of information. The rate of technical change in processing, storage, bandwidth, sensing, and effecting is dizzying. The technical changes in turn facilitate large shifts in most of our fundamental institutions: in nation-states, communication industries, churches, armies, factories, friendship networks, and more. The rate of social change is intoxicating, disorienting, and probably accelerating. #RandolphHarris 6 of 21

The transitions underway as referred to as the “Information Revolution,” although forces other than information technology are also deeply involved. Transportation, biotechnology, marketing, and a host of other technologies have expanded dramatically in the last half-century. Information technology has fueled these expansions and been shaped by them. While acknowledging these complications, we concentrate here on the Information Revolution, the aspect of our era that seems to us to have the most novel and transforming properties. An Information Revolution seems to demand policy interventions at every level of social organization. What shall notion-states do about encryption of boundary-spanning financial crimes? What shall families do about unsavory materials their children can easily access? What shall armies do to prepare for attacks on “infostructure”? What shall charitable organizations and business firms do about the privacy of records kept in their clienteles? In all these cases and thousands more, deep questions are being asked about how interventions—designs and policies—can steer future developments in beneficial directions. In an era in which so many customary social, political, and economic arrangements seem up for grabs, what interventions will bring us to a future we would prefer? In all of these settings, people often ask how the likely consequences of actions can be foreseen. #RandolphHarris 7 of 21

Using our framework, we depart sharply from conventional efforts to foretell the future and draw policy implications for the unfolding Information Revolution. Instead, we offer a way to analyze the situations and intervention possibilities that flow unceasingly from this enormous change. We have offered purposeful questions where general answers can be known. We can start by considering why at this historical and technological juncture we should expect the future events in an Information Revolution to be especially difficult to discern. Our answer lies in the complexity of the social and technical processes whose rates of change are accelerated. Our view of the relevance of work on Complex Adaptive Systems can be grounded by examining two arguments. They relate the concept of information to complexity and adaptation. Of course, not all the images and words used are cannibalized from serious or sacred contexts, and one must admit tht as things stand at the moment it is quite unthinkable for the image of Jesus Christ to be used to sell wine. At least no a chardonnay. On the other hands, his birthday is used as an occasion for commerce to exhaust nearly the entire repertoire of Christian symbology. The constraints are so few that we may call this a form of cultural rape, sanctioned by an ideology that gives boundless supremacy to technological progress and is indifferent to the unraveling of tradition. In putting it this way, I mean to say that mass advertising is not the cause of great symbol drain. Such cultural abuse could not have occurred without technologies to make it possible and a World-view to make it desirable. #RandolphHarris 8 of 21

In the institutional form it has taken in the United States of America, advertising is a symptom of a World-view that see tradition as an obstacle to its claims. There can, of course, be no functioning sense of tradition without a measure of respect for symbols. Tradition is, in fact, nothing but the acknowledgement of the authority of symbols and the relevance of the narratives tht gave birth to them. With the erosion of symbols there follows a loss of narrative, which is one of the most debilitating consequences of Technopoly’s power. We may take as an example the field of education. In Technoply, we improve the education of our youth by improving what are called “learning technologies.” At the moment, it is considered necessary to introduce computers to the classroom, as it once was thought necessary to bring closed-circuit television and film to the classroom. To the question “Why should we do this?” the answer is: “To make learning more efficient and more interesting.” Such an answer is considered entirely adequate, since in Technopoly efficiency and interest need no justification. It is, therefore, usually not noticed that this answer does not address the questions “What is learning for?” “Efficiency and interest” is a technical answer, an answer about means, not ends; and it offer no pathway to a consideration of educational philosophy. Indeed, it blocks the way to such a consideration by beginning with the question of how we should proceed rather than with the question of why. #RandolphHarris 9 of 21

It is probably not necessary to say that, by definition, there can be no education philosophy that does not address what learning is for. Confucius, Plato, Quintilian, Cicero, Comenius, Erasmus, Locke, Rousseau, Jefferson, Russell, Montessori, Whitehead, and Dewey—each believed that there was some transcendent political, spiritual, or social idea that must be advance through education. Confucius advocated teaching, “the Way” because in tradition he saw the best hope of social order. As our first systematic fascist, Plato wished education to produce philosopher kinds. Cicero argued that education must free the student from the tyranny of the present. Jefferson thought the purpose of education is to teach the young how to protect their liberties. Rousseau wished education to free the young from the unnatural constraints of a wicked and arbitrary social order. And among John Dewey’s aims was to help the student function without certainty in a World of constant change and puzzling ambiguities. Only in knowing something of the reasons why they advocated education can we make sense of the means the suggest. However, to understand their reason we must also understand the narratives that governed their view of the World. By narrative, present a human history that fives meaning to the past, explains the present, and provides guidance for the future. It is a story whose principles help a culture to organize its institutions, to develop ideals, and to find authority for its actions. #RandolphHarris 10 of 21

Once again, the resource of the World’s greatest narratives has been religion, as found, for example, in Genesis or the Bhagavad-Gita or the Koran. There are those who believe—as did the great historian Arnold Toynbee—that without a comprehensive religious narrative at its center a culture must decline. Perhaps. There are, after all, other sources—mythology, politics, philosophy, and science, for example—but it is certain that no culture can flourish without narratives of transcendent origin and power. This does not mean that the mere existence of such a narrative ensures a culture’s stability and strength. There are destructive narratives. A narrative provides meaning, not necessarily survival—as, for example, the story provided by Adolph Hitler to the German nation in the 1930s. Drawing on sources in Teutonic mythology and resurrecting ancient and primitive symbolism, Hitler wove a tale of Aryan supremacy that lifted German spirits, gave point to their labours, eased their distress, and provided explicit ideals. The story glorified the past, elucidated the present, and foretold the future, which was to last a thousand years. The Third Reich lasted exactly twelve years. It is not my point to dwell on the reasons why the story of Aryan supremacy is facing challenges enduring. Cultures must have narratives and will find them where they will, even if they lead to catastrophe. The alternative is to love without meaning, the ultimate negation of life itself. It is also to point to say that each narrative is given its form and its emotional texture through a cluster of symbols that call for respect and allegiance, even devotion. #RandolphHarris 11 of 21

The United States of America’s Constitution, for example, is only in a part a legal document, and, a small part. Democratic nations—England, for one—do not require a written constitution to ensure legal order and the protection of liberties. The importance of the American Constitution is largely in its function as a symbol of the story of our origins. It is our political equivalent of Genesis. To mock it, to ignore it, to circumvent it is to declare the irrelevance of the story of the United States of America as a moral light unto the World. In like fashion, the American Flag is the key symbol of the story of America as the natural home of the teeming masses, for anywhere, yearning to be free. There are, of course, several reasons why such stories lose their force. The growth of Technopoly has overwhelmed earlier, more meaningful stories. However, in all cases, the trivialization of the symbols that express, support, and dramatize the story will accompany the decline. Symbol drain is both a symptom and a cause of a loss of narrative. In Guys and Dolls, gambler Sky Masterson relates this valuable advice from his father: “Son, one of these days in your travels a guy is going to come to you and show you a nice brand-new deck of cards on which the deal is not yet broken, and this guy is going to offer to bet you that he can make the jack of spades jump out of the deck and squirt cider in your ear. But son, do not bet this man, for as sure as you stand there you are going to wind up with cider in your ear.” #RandolphHarris 12 of 21

The context of the story is that Nathan Detroit had offered Sky Masterson a bet about whether Mindy’s sold more strudel or cheesecake. Nathan had just discovered the answer (strudel) and was willing to bet if Sky would bet on cheesecake. This example may sound somewhat extreme. Of course no one would take such a sucker bet. However, look at the market for futures contracts on the Chicago Board of Exchange. If another speculator offers to sell you a future contract, he will make money only if you lose money. This deal is a zero-sum game, just like sports competitions, in which one team’s victory is the other’s loss. Hence if someone is willing to sell a futures contract, you should not be willing to buy it. And vice versa. The strategic insight is that other people’s actions tell us something about what they know, and we should use such information to guide our own action. Of course, we should use this in conjunction with our own information concerning the matter and use all strategic devices to elicit more from others. In the Guys and Dolls example, there is a simple device of this kind. Sky should ask Nathan at what odds he would be willing to take the cheesecake side of the bet. If the answer is “not at any odds,” then Sky can infer that the answer must be strudel. If Nathan offers the same odds for both strudel and cheesecake, he is hiding his information at the cost of giving Sky the opportunity to take an advantageous gamble. In stock markets, foreign exchange markets, and other financial markets, people are free to take either side of the bet in just this way. #RandolphHarris 13 of 21

Indeed, in some organized exchanges, including the London stock market, when you ask for a quote on a stock the market-maker is required to state both the buying and selling prices before he knows which side of the transaction you want. Without such a safeguard, market-makers could stand to profit from private information, and the outside investors’ fear of being suckered might cause the entire market to fold. The buy and sell prices are not quite the same; the difference is called the bid-ask spread. In liquid markets the spread is quite small, indicating that little information contained in any buy or sell order. On the other hand, Nathan Detroit is willing to bet on strudel at any price and on cheesecake at no price; his bid-ask spread is infinity. Beware of such market-makers. We should add that Sky had not really learned his father’s teaching very well. A minute later he bet Nathan that Nathan did not know the colour of his own bowtie. Sky cannot win: if Nathan knows the colour, he takes the bet and wins; if he does not, he declines the bet and does not lose. If one is to rule, and to continue ruling, one must be able to dislocate the sense of reality. For the secret of rulership is to combine a belief in one’s own infallibility with the power to learn from past mistakes. It need hardly be said that the subtlest practitioners of double-think are those who invented doublethink and know that it is a vast system of mental cheating. In our society, those who have the best knowledge of what is happening are also those who are furthest from seeing the World as it is. In general, the greater the understanding, the greater the delusion: the more intelligent, the less sane. #RandolphHarris 14 of 21

The United States of America and Europe increasingly differ in their relationships not only to the deep economic fundamentals of time and space but to the knowledge as well—including knowledge-intensive technologies. In 2022, the PC market in Europe generated $68 billion U.S. dollars in revenue as against the $10.4 billion by the United States of America and $57.7 by Japan. Of the top ten I.T. companies in the World in 2022—including Microsoft Corporation, IBM, Accenture, Oracle, SAP, TCS, DXC, Delloite Consulting, Capgemini, Cognizant—only SAP and Capgemini are European. Only thirty European producers make it onto the list of the World’s three hundred biggest software companies, and only two—Capgemini and SAP are in the top ten. Like North America and Japan, Europe is a leading player in the generation of scientific and technological competencies. The combined R&D budget of the EU-25 is more than two-thirds that of the United States of America, and nearly double that of Japan. The output of the EU is substantially higher than the of the United States of America, but strongly reflects the size of the EU, which has a population much larger than the USA or Japan. However, Europe is losing ground in the most dynamic and technologically advanced part of the economy. The concern about an increasing technological gap is certainly not new: as early as the 1960s we heard about “the American challenge,” and similar concerned were reiterated in the 1980s and in the 1990s. Europe is not the only region concerned about its technological performance. Similar worries were echoed in America, and we would doubtless find comparable statements in the Far East as well. #RandolphHarris 15 of 21

However, saying that the neighbour’s grass is always greener cannot dismiss the issue of poor performance by the European economy in key aspects of knowledge-based production. The gap in living standards between the European Union and the U.S.A. is now wider than it has ever been in the past 25 years. The commission also warned that Europe is about to miss the boat on the biotech revolution. The commission also found that both the United States of America and Japan invest more per capita in nanotechnology R&D than the European Union, and that “the gap is expected to widen.” Innovation is a key to economic success, but it is an area where Europe needs to excel quickly. Some people believe the European Union needs to do a better job of catching up with America. The union’s economy matches that of the United States of America in the late 1970s. Europe’s leaders are still shortchanging research and development, science and science education, still brushing off the “new economy” and complaining about de-industrialization. Europe is the planet’s leading industrial power. However, the United States of America is the planet’s leading “no-longer-industrial power.” And Europe, with some important exceptions, has still not adequately altered its relationship to the deep fundamental of knowledge—and to revolutionary wealth. In the years ahead, the big countries of Western Europe could see many of their low-tech manufacturing jobs migrate to the lower-cost E.U. member states in for former Soviet bloc or elsewhere. Failure to replace these jobs through a faster transition to services and knowledge-based, innovation-intensive, and higher-value-added production will increase unemployment levels—already significantly higher than those in the United States of America or Japan. #RandolphHarris 16 of 21

In turn, this will further increase anti-immigrant tensions—and the potential for escalating militancy and terrorism in Europe’s large Muslim underclass. The car-burning riots in France may only be a foreshadow of things to come. Part of Western Europe’s problem is deep-seated hostility toward technology. Its trade unions fear job losses. Its NGOs offer knee-jerk opposition to new technologies often because of imagined dangers. While a technophiliac Asia races to adopt the latest advances, technophobic Western Europeans create obstacles to their development and application. This technophobia is somewhat less apparent as one moves eastward to the former Communist countries. The Czech Republic, with one of the World’s highest percentages of science and engineering graduates compared with all degrees awarded there, has attracted projects by IMB, Accenture, Logica and Olympus. Slovenia has all the attributes of a top destination for smaller knowledge-economy projects, high-tech centers, distribution and logistic hubs and call centers. Hungary already claims Nokia’s largest R&D center outside Finland, and ExxonMobil has opened a new headquarters in Budapest to consolidate its European I.T and accounting support operations. The European Union itself, the value of Hungary’s high-tech exports already rivaled those of Denmark or Spain. Eastern European members may soon be scouting high-tech, value added niches ignored by slower-moving Western European—and pondering the possibility of actually leaping ahead of some of their neighbours. #RandolphHarris 17 of 21

With respect, therefore, to all three of the deep fundamentals we have explored—time, space and knowledge—the United States of America and Europe are moving apart. And that would be happening even if differences over the war in the Ukraine had never been an issue. To reverse that process, the United States of America would need to stall or drive in reverse as Europe, with a new map, accelerates its transition to a Third Wave wealth system. Someday, if one listens to its triumphalists, Europe could become a global counterweight to what may see as excessive American power. However, the geopolitical power of nations presupposes economic and military might—both of which now increasingly depend on that softest of all resources: Knowledge. Regrettably, it would appear, Europe has still not received that lost-in-the spam folder message. The best surviving example of feudal organization today is found in the university, where each department is a barony, professors are ranked and rule over graduate assistants, who make up the body of serfs. This feudal holdover is embedded within (and often war with) the bureaucratic administrative structure of the university. Another example is the Congress of the United States of America, where 535 elected “barons” rule over a huge bureaucratic staff. A similar combination of industrial bureaucracy and feudal barony is found in the Big Eight accounting firms, in large law offices, in brokerage houses, and in the military, where each service—army, navy, or air force—is a fiercely independent fiefdom. Generals and admirals in charge of these fiefdoms may have more real power than higher-ranked officers in staff positions who command no troops. #RandolphHarris 18 of 21

In “buro-baronies” the barons war with one another, often forming alliances to weaken central control. Such feudal elements are still found in business as well, along with what we might call “vestigial vassalage.” George Masters is a veteran engineer who has worked for several U.S. electronics manufacturers and now serves as the administrative aide to Philip Ames, a corporate VP in one of the World’s largest computer firms. If anyone in personnel took the trouble to check, they would discover that Masters came into the company shortly after Ames arrived. And if they were to check further, they would discover the same thing happened in the company that employed both of them before they took their present jobs. And the one before that. Hard-drinking buddies as well as workmates, Masters and Ames socialize together. They and their wives take vacations together. In fact, Masters and Ames (the people are real, the names are not) have worked together for more than fifteen years, Masters always following Ames as Ames hopped to successively higher positions. This pattern, whether called “hitching your wagon to a star” or “riding on someone’s coattails, is found in almost every large firm. Because it sharply reduces the need for communication—the two men know each other so well they can anticipate each other’s reactions—it is highly efficient for some purposes, even though it violates formal personnel rules that call for “objective” selection. #RandolphHarris 19 of 21

The psychology of “vassalage” is extremely complex, involving everything from mentorships to the exchange of financial, pleasures of the flesh, or other favors. At its heart, however, the system is feudal and subjective, rather than bureaucratic and impersonal. The power relationships are similarly complicated. At one level the “vassal,” or junior, is dependent upon the “lord,” or senior, who is higher up in the table of organization. Yet the top dog can be totally dependent upon his or her underling, whose chief unofficial function may be to conceal from others the weaknesses of the boss. This may be as common as fronting for the boss when he or she is too drunk to do one’s job. It may be as unusual as reading to one and making presentations for one because, unbeknownest to the company, the boss is dyslexic. As bureaucracy weakens and its channels and cubbyholes become clogged, other neo-feudal forms and practices are likely to proliferate also, and find a place in the flex-firm. When it comes to energy, it was once thought that nuclear power would lead to “power too cheap to meter.” This assertion, attributed to the early nuclear era, has passed into folklore as a warning to be skeptical of technologists promising free goodies. Does the warning apply here? Anyone claiming that something is free does not really understand economics. Using something always has a cost equal to the most valuable alternative use for the thing. Choosing one alternative sacrifices another, and that sacrifice is the cost. There is no such things as a free opportunity, since opportunities always cost (at least) time and attention. Nanotechnology will not mean free goodies. #RandolphHarris 20 or 21

Nuclear reactors boil water to make steam to turn turbines to turn generators to drive electrical power through power lines to transformers to local power lines to houses, factories, and so forth. The wildest optimist could never have claimed that nuclear power was a free source of anything more than heat, and a realist would have added in the cost of the reactor equipment, fuel, waste disposal, hazards, and the rest. Even our wild optimist would have had to include the cost of building the boiler, the turbines, the generators, the power lines, and the transformers, and the cost of maintenance on all these. These costs were known to be a major part of the cost of power, so free heat would not have meant free power. Thus, the claim was absurd the day it was made—not merely in hindsight. In the early 1960s, Alvin Weinberg, head of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was a strong advocate of nuclear power, and argued that it would provide “cheap energy.” He was optimistic, but did his sums. First, he assumed that nuclear-power plants could be built a little more cheaply than coal-fire powered plants of the same size. Then he assumed that the cost of fuel, waste disposal, operations, and maintenance for nuclear plants would be not much more than the cost of operations and maintenance alone for coal plants. Then he assumed that they might last for more than thirty years. Finally, he assumed that they would be publicly operated, tax free at low interest (which merely moves costs elsewhere) and that after thirty years the cost of the equipment would be written off (which is an accounting fiction). With all of that, he derived a power cost that “might be” as low as one half the cost of the cheapest coal-fired plant he mentions. He was clearly an optimist, but he did not come close to arguing for power too cheap to meter. #RandolphHarris 21 of 21


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People Live in Sleep

There is no middle ground in the stark appraisal of suffering. We hope only for recovery and for a return to self-sufficiency. Anything less invokes bitterness. Everyone eats but few kill. Technicians fell the lamb. Eating becomes a ceremony of innocence, tinkle of crystal, rustle of taffeta. Teeth are for beauty: straighten them, make them whiter, the smile more loving. Visit every restaurant in town, never pass the house of nourishment. The tendency of civilization is not to eliminate destructiveness, nor even to diminish it, but to remove it. Our fate falls now from the touch of a finger in an underground bunker half a World away. As we have already discussed, there are four states of consciousness possible for man: sleep, waking consciousness, self-consciousness, and objective consciousness; but he lives only in two: partly in sleep and partly in what is called waking consciousness. It is as though he had a four-storied house, but lived only in the two lower stories. The first, or the lowest state of consciousness, is sleep. This is a purely subjective and passive state. Man is surrounded by dreams. All his psychic functions work without any direction. There is no logic, no sequence, no cause, and no result in dreams. Purely subjective pictures—either reflections of former experiences or reflections of vague perceptions of the moment, such as sounds reaching the sleeping man, sensations coming from body, slight pains, sensations of muscular tension—fly though the mind, leaving only a very slight trace on the memory and more often leaving no trace at all. #RandolphHarris 1 of 20

The second degree of consciousness comes when man awakes. This second state, the state in which we are now, that is, in which we work, talk, imagine ourselves conscious beings, and so forth, we often call waking consciousness or clear consciousness, but really it should be called “waking sleep” or “relative consciousness.” This last term will be explained later. It is necessary to understand here that the first state of consciousness, that is, sleep, does not disappear when the second state arrives, that is when man awakes. Sleep remains there, with all its dreams and impressions, only a more critical attitude towards one’s own impressions, only a more critical attitude towards one’s own impressions, more connected thoughts, more disciplined actions become added to it, and because of the vividness of sense impressions, desires, and feelings—particularly the feeling of contradiction or impossibility, which is entirely absent in sleep—dreams become invisible exactly as the stars and moon become invisible in the glare of the sun. However, they are all there, and they often influence all our thoughts, feelings, and actions—sometimes even more than the actual perceptions of the moment. In connection with this I must say at once that I do not mean what is called in modern psychology “the subconscious” or “the subconscious mind.” These are simply wrong expressions, wrong terms, which mean nothing and do not refer to any real facts. There is nothing permanently subconscious in us because there is nothing permanently conscious; and there is no “subconscious mind” for the very simple reason that there is no “conscious mind.” #RandolphHarris 2 of 20

Later you will see how this mistake occurred, and how this wrong terminology came into being, and became almost generally accepted. However, let us return to the states of consciousness which really exist. The first is sleep. The second is “waking sleep” or “relative consciousness.” The first, as I have said, is purely subjective state. The second is less subjective; man already distinguishes “I” and “not I” in the sense of his body and objects different from his body, and he can, to a certain extent, orientate among them and know their position and qualities. However, it cannot be said tht man is awake in this state, because he is very strongly influenced by dreams, and really lives more in dreams than in fact. All the absurdities and all the contradictions of people, and of human life in general, become explained when we realize that people live in sleep, do everything in sleep, and do not know that they are asleep. It is useful to remember that this is the inner meaning of many ancient doctrines. The best known to us is Christianity, of the Gospel teaching, in which the idea that men live in sleep and must first of all awake is the basis of all the explanations of human life, although it is very rarely understood as it should be understood, in this case literally. However, the question is: how can a man awake? The Gospel teaching demands awakening, but does not say how to awaken. #RandolphHarris 3 of 20

However, the psychological study of consciousness shows that only when a man realizes that he is asleep, is it possible to say that he is on the way to awakening. He can never awaken without first realizing his sleep. These two states, sleep and waling sleep, are the only two states of consciousness in which man lives. Besides them there are two states of consciousness possible for man, but they become accessible to a man only after a hard and prolonged struggle. These two higher states of consciousness are called “self-consciousness” and “objective consciousness.” We generally think that we possess self-consciousness, that is, that we are conscious of ourselves, at any moment we wish, but in truth “self-consciousness” is a state which we ascribe to ourselves without any right. “Objective consciousness” is a state about which we know nothing. Self-consciousness is a state in which man becomes objective towards himself, and objective consciousness is a state in which he comes into contact with the real, or objective, World from which he is now shut off by the senses, dreams, and subjective states of consciousness. Another definition of the four states of consciousness can be made from the point of view of the possible cognition of truth. In the first state of consciousness, that is, in sleep, we cannot know anything of the truth. Even if some real perceptions or feelings come to us, they become mixed with dreams, and in the state of sleep we cannot distinguish between dreams and reality. #RandolphHarris 4 of 20

In the second state of consciousness, that is, in waking sleep, we can only know relative truth, and from this comes the term “relative consciousness.” In the third state of consciousness, that is, the state of self-consciousness, we can know the full truth about ourselves. In the fourth state of consciousness, that is, in the state of objective consciousness, we are supposed to be able to know the full truth about everything; we can study “things in themselves,” “the World as it is.” This is so far from us that we cannot even think about it in the right way, and we must try to understand that even glimpses of objective consciousness can only come in the fully developed state of self-consciousness. In the state of sleep we can have glimpses of relative consciousness. However, if we want to have more prolonged periods of self-consciousness and not merely glimpses, we must understand that they cannot come by themselves, they need will action. This means that frequency and duration of moments of self-consciousness depend on the command one has over oneself. So it means that consciousness and will are almost one and the same thing. At this point, it must be understood that the first obstacle in the way of the development of self-consciousness in man, is his conviction that he already possesses self-consciousness, or at any rate, that he can have it at any time he likes. It is very difficult to persuade a man that he is not conscious and cannot be conscious at will It is particularly difficult because here nature plays a very funny trick. #RandolphHarris 5 of 20

If you ask a man if he is conscious or if you say to him that he is not conscious, he will answer that he is not, because he hears and understands you. And he will be quite right, although at the same time quite wrong. This is nature’s trick. He will be right because your question or your remark has made him vaguely conscious for a moment. Next moment consciousness will disappear. However, he will remember what you said and what he answered, and he will certainly consider himself conscious. In reality, acquiring self-consciousness means long and hard work. How can a man agree to this work if he thinks he already possesses the very thing which is promised him as the result of long and hard work? Naturally a man will not begin this work and will not consider it necessary until he becomes convinced that he possesses neither self-consciousness nor all that is connected with it, that is, unity or individuality, permanent “I,” and will. This brings us to the question of schools, because methods for the development of self-consciousness, unity, permanent “I,” and will, can be given only by special schools. That must be clearly understood. Men on the level of relative consciousness cannot find these methods by themselves; and these methods cannot be described in books or taught in ordinary schools for the very simple reason that they re different for different people, and there is no universal method equally applicable to all. #RandolphHarris 6 of 20

In other words, this means that men who want to change their state of consciousness need a school. However, first they must realize their need. As long as they think they can do something by themselves they will not be able to make any use of a school, even if they find it. Schools exist only for those who need them, and who know that they need them. The idea of schools—the study of the kinds of schools that may exist, the study of school principles and school methods—occupies a very important place in the study of that psychology which is connected with the idea of evolution; because without a school there can be no evolution. One cannot even start because one does not know how to start; still less can one continue or attain anything. This means that, having got rid of the first illusion—that one already has everything one can have—one must get rid of the second illusion—tht one can get anything by oneself; because by oneself one can get nothing. These lectures are not a school—not even the beginning of a school. A school requires a much higher pressure of work. However, in these lectures I can give to those who wish to listen, some ideas as to how schools work and how they can be found. I gave before two definitions of psychology. First, I said that psychology is the study of the possible evolution of man; and second, that psychology is the study of oneself. Psychology which investigates the evolution of man is worth studying, and a psychology which is occupied with only one phase of man, without knowing anything about his other phases, is obviously not complete, and cannot have any value, even in a purely scientific sense, that is, from the point of view of experiment and observation. #RandolphHarris 7 of 20

For the present phase, as studied by ordinary psychology, in reality does not exist as something separate and consists of many subdivisions which lead from lower phases to higher phases. Moreover, the same experiment and observation show tht one cannot study psychology as one can study any other science not directly connected with oneself. One has to begin the study of psychology with oneself. Putting together, first, what we may know about the next phase in the evolution of man—that is, that it will mean acquiring consciousness, inner unity, permanent ego, and will—and second, certain material that we can get by self-observation—that is, realization of the absence in us of many powers and faculties which we ascribe to ourselves—we come to a new difficulty in understanding the meaning of psychology, and to the necessity for a new definition. The two definitions given in the previous lectures are not sufficient because man by himself does not know what evolution is possible for him, does not see where he stands at present, and ascribes to himself features belonging to higher phases of evolution. In fact, he cannot study himself, being unable to distinguish between the imaginary and the real in himself. There are countless pitfalls on the way out of misery. Focusing restlessly on what has been lost, comparing oneself to others, aspiring for things that are out of reach, and placing blame on others are only some of the most common snares. Each personal variation is uniquely painful. #RandolphHarris 8 of 20

It is all too common for people to get themselves into situations that are difficult to get out of. Once you have a job in a particular city, it is expensive to resettle. Once you buy a computer and learn its operating system, it becomes costly to learn another one and rewrite all your programs. Travelers who join the frequent-flyer program of one airline thereby raise their cost of using another. And, of course, marriage is expensive to escape. The problem is that once you make such a commitment, your bargaining position is weakened. Companies may take advantage of their workers’ anticipated moving costs and give them fewer salary raises. Computer companies can charge higher prices for new, compatible peripheral equipment knowing that their customers cannot easily switch to a new, incompatible technology. Airlines, having established a large base of frequent flyers, will be less inclined to engage in fare wars. A couple’s agreement that they will split the housework 50:50 may become subject to renegotiation once a child is born. Strategists who foresee such consequences will use their bargaining power while it exists, namely, before they get into the commitment. Typically, this will take the form of a payment up front. Competition among the would-be exploiters can lead to the same result. Companies will have to offer more attractive initial salaries, computer manufacturers will have to charge sufficiently low prices for their central processing units (CPUs), and airline frequent-flyer programs will have to offer larger signing-on mileage bonuses. As for married couples, exploitation may be a game that two can play. #RandolphHarris 9 of 20

The same foresight is what prevents many curious but rational people from trying addictive drugs such as heroin. A Tom Lehrer song describes the drug dealer’s ploy: “He gives the kids free samples because he knows full well that today’s young innocent faces will be tomorrow’s clientele.” Smart kids know it too, and turn down the free samples. Complexity research has received considerable attention recently. In some measure, this is because advances in computation have enabled progress on a number of problems tht had long been too difficult for conventional mathematical tools. However, it is important to recall that the fundamental orientation of complexity research is actually rooted in long traditions. Adam Smith’s hidden hand, the “blind watchmaking” of Darwinian evolution, the cell-assembly neuropsychology of Donald Hebb, and the self-reproducing automata of John von Neumann were earlier intellectual developments that blazed the same trail by uncovering system-level properties produced by the structured interaction of simple components. Perhaps there are powerful results just over the horizon, but as we see it, complexity research does not make detailed predictions. Rather, it is a framework that suggests new kinds of questions and possible actions. We should compare the results taking shape to the artificial selection principles of animal husbandry (a field that must interested the youthful Darwin). Analyzing complex systems within the framework does not assure the ability to produce specific outcomes but can foster an increase in the value of populations overtime—whether the populations are of livestock, of technical innovations, or of new strategies for business competition. #RandolphHarris 10 of 20

In the language of our framework, a designer introduces new artifacts or strategies into the World. A new machine on a factory floor or a new approach to conducting a budget review may be interventions in complex systems whose full consequences cannot be contemplated in advance. An orbiting telescope and a legal appeal on constitutional grounds almost certainly will have consequences that are hard to predict. A designer may even introduce new agents into the World. For example, an executive might create a new division in an organization, or a legislature might set up a new governmental bureau. Policy makers deliberately alter the consequences of available strategies when they increase rewards for some outcomes or make some patterns of action illegal. We use the phrase “design and policy making” to indicate the full spectrum of actions that we may find ourselves considering. We may take the perspective of some within a system—for example, as one of many people at a committee table. Alternatively, we may contemplate the system from the outside, as an architect or a legislator might do. In either case, we all find ourselves designing or making policy in complex settings. When we do, it can be very valuable to extend the questions we conventionally ask about likely consequences and scenarios. We can go on to ask what populations of agents and strategies are involved, and what interventions might create new combinations or destroy old ones? These kinds of questions help us harness complexity. #RandolphHarris 11 of 20

The widening gulf between Western Europe and the United States of America also reflects two contrasting attitudes toward the deep fundamental of time. Europe and America operate at different speeds. Europe is well behind the United States of America in work-at-home arrangements that typically allow employees to adjust their work hours. Even in the shop or office, Europe lags in flexible scheduling, 24/7 operations and other departures from traditional industrial routines. Workforce flexibility is needed for firms to compete successfully in today’s global markets. However, European workers and employers alike remain trapped in inflexible temporal arrangements. This situation is not merely reflected in the longer vacations, generally shorter workweek and overall slower pace of life on which Europeans, and especially the French, pride themselves. It is even seen in attitudes toward meals. In response to the American-born fast-food industry spreading across the globe, Europe has originated the “slow food” movement aimed at fighting it. Started almost as a joke in Italy in 1986, this movement now claims as many as eighty thousand members in one hundred countries, including 145 chapters in the United States of America. Its organizers stage events, publish books about food and celebrate good (and slow) eating. #RandolphHarris 12 of 20

The slow-food movement has (slowly) spawned a counterpart called cittaslow devoted to maintaining slow life in small cities. It promotes local products and sustainability and is so committed to slowness, that of thirty Italian towns that helped found the movement, none had qualified for membership. “They’re not supposed to qualify quickly,” explained one of the movement’s organizers. “It could take years.” Whether a new organization ever spring up for those who enjoy both a fast and a slow pace of life at different times, both a burger on the run and a languorous lobster, remains to be seen. Meanwhile, Britons are flocking to villages like Agincourt in northern France in search of greater tranquility and a still-slower-paced lifestyle. The surge is helped, no doubt, by lower house prices and just possibly by the Channel Tunnel and additional airline flights that-forefended the thought—speed up travel. All of which led one Againcourt real estate agent, Maggie Kelly, to exclaim, “There days I hardly have five minutes to turn around!” Apparently, no irony intended. However, amusement should not deceive us. Whatever the virtues of slow versus fast, how a society deals with time has important implications for how it creates wealth—for both de-synchronization at home and integration into the World economy. European headlines are dotted, in fact, with the word slow, as in CORE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SLOW TO IMPLEMENT…, EU “TOO SLOW” ON ECONOMIC REFORMS and GENDER EQUALITY: SLOW PROGRESS. But it is not just the European must confront layer after impenetrable layer of regulations. #RandolphHarris 13 of 20

In Europe things move slower and take more time and energy. So it is no surprise to learn from the European Commission itself that “in the United States of America, it takes just six hours to establish a business, and while differences remain between member states…in Europe, it takes much longer in all of them.” Try, for example, obtaining a patent in Europe. According to Trevor Cook of the European law firm Bird & Bird, “It takes much longer to secure patents in Europe thana it does in the U.S., typically at least four, sometimes as many as ten years, and this is a real problem for fast-moving high-tech businesses.” Or talk to Rita Villa, an American certified public accountant who operates on both sides of the Atlantic. “Things just take longer in Europe. Transactions have many more steps. For example, if the U.S. company wants to move its headquarters from, say, Chicago to Dallas, no problem. But if a German firm wants to move from Berlin to Frankfurt, it requires a whole time-consuming multi-step process of ‘registration.’” Or, she says, try changing the legal form of a company, something smaller firms often need to do. If I have limited liability corporation, or LLC, in the U.S. and want to convert it to an ordinary corporation with “Inc.” at the end of its name, I can do that rapidly. But in Germany when we wanted to change a GMBH to an AGa comparable changeit took over a year. Say the company wants to issue a dividend to its shareholders. In the U.S., the board of directors meets and, if it thinks it’s a god idea, it votes and that’s it. Not in Germany. There the auditors first have to approve it. Then it goes to the management board. After that it has to go to the supervisory board. Then it has to go to the notary who can demand last-minute alterations even after all the parties have reached an agreement. Then it has to be registered. #RandolphHarris 14 of 20

The transatlantic differences intime and pace even affect Europe’s defense industries and military. American military technology and capabilities are aimed at enabling faster and faster responses to crisis. European forces in NATO cannot keep up, making integrated joint action more difficult. The European Union, meanwhile, is moving—slowly—to create its own “rapid reaction” military force. At all these levels, therefore, from lifestyle and culture to military matters and, above all, business and the economy, the speed gap between European and the United States of America is, if anything, widening. Each is responding to the accelerative economy and the deep fundamental of time at its own, very different pace. Now, when it comes to flex-firms, another format likely to find a place in many flex-firms is a completely two-faced unit capable of operating in two modes, depending upon the circumstance. The pulsating unit differs in size and organization from time to time. The pulsating unit differs in size and organization from time to time. The Janus-like organization may remain the same in size, but shift from hierarchical to nonhierarchical command as needs demand. A prime example is the famed British military unit, the Special Air, or SAS. Used for surgical antiterrorist strikes, hostage rescue, and other missions demanding surprise and deception, the SAS operates in two diametrically opposed modes. On the parade ground it is all spit, polish, and blind obedience. Regimental protocol is enforced by screaming sergeants. The privileges of rank and hierarchy are brutally upheld. #RandolphHarris 15 of 20

In action, however, a totally different kind of behavior is expected from the same people. SAS troops fight in tiny units, often cut off from their base, and without any officer present. There is a unit commander, but he may not hold a formal rank and is likely to be referred to simply as the “boss.” The men, derisively called “sir” on the parade ground, now become “mister” or are addressed simply by the first name. The same sergeant who cursed a trooper for some trivial infraction of the dress code may now tolerate jokes about those “parade ground idiots.” Rank, hierarchy, and privilege are replaced under fire by a different set of ground rules. In fact, Colonel David Stirling, who initially proposed formation of the SAS, pointed out that the smallest unit in paratroop or commando organizations consisted of eight or ten men led by a noncommissioned officer who did the thinking for the unit. Stirling insisted on something unique in military history—a four-man fighting module. In the SAS, Stirling has written, “Each of the four men was trained to a high general level of proficiency in the whole range of the SAS capability and, additionally, each man was trained to have at least one special expertise according to his aptitude. In carrying out an operation—often in pitch-dark—each SAS man in each module was exercising his own individual perception and judgment at full stretch.” In fact, Stirling insisted on the number four to prevent orthodox leadership from arising. The danger of each person acting as a loose cannon is minimized through the selection of extremely motivated team players. #RandolphHarris 16 of 20

The result is an organization that has been described as “a unique military democracy…in which, if he succeeds, a man exchanges his former class and even identity for membership [in] a caste as binding as any family.” It is this intense training and commitment that make it possible for the same unit to operate in both an authoritarian and a democratic mode, as the occasion demands. Businesses, too, needs different behavior during normal operations and in the midst of crisis. In fact, many firms today are creating crisis centers, contingency plans, and fallback arrangements. However, few actually train all their employees to operate in two contrasting modes. The present conception of crisis management is to create a “shadow management,” which waits in reserve, prepared to assume power during the emergency. Its ability to do so depends heavily on access to information and control of communications. Southern California Edison, for example, which operates the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, has set up a complex emergency information system that uses remote sensing, voice and video links, to tie its crisis command center to field units. As we move further into a period of economic and political turbulence, punctuated erratically by technological breakthroughs and disasters, we can expect crises to crowd in on one another—everything from terrorist attacks and product failures to sudden international crises. #RandolphHarris 17 of 20

The Exxon oil spill, the collapse of the Continental Illinois bank, the wave of saving-and-loan failures, the bankruptcy of the A.H. Robins Company after the discovery of health problems related to its Dalkon Shield intrauterine contraceptive device only begin to suggest the diversity of crises that can face businesses. Each one brings enormous power shifts with its scapegoats are blamed, new leaders arise, and others are discredited and replaced. However, the increased likelihood of crisis teams and two-faced organizations spread through the business World and become a regular part of the flex-firm of tomorrow. Now, when it comes to labor, once a plant is operating, it should require little human labor (what people do with their time will change, unless factories are kept running as bizarre hobbies). Desert Rose Industries was run by two people, yet was described as producing large quantities of varied gods. The basic molecular-scale operations of manufacturing have to be automated, since they are too small for people to work on. The other operations are fairly simple and can be assisted by equipment for handling materials and information. When taking space into account, even a manufacturing plant based on nanotechnology takes up room. It would, however, be more compact than familiar manufacturing plants, and could be built in some out-of-the-way place with inexpensive land. These costs should be small by today’s standards. Considering insurance, this cost will depend on the state of the law, but some comparisons can be made. #RandolphHarris 18 of 20

Improved sensors and alarms could be made integral parts of products; these should lower fire and theft premiums. Product liability costs should be reduced by safer, more reliable products. Employee injury rates will be reduced by having less labor input. Still, the legal system in the United States of America has shown a disturbing tendency to block every new risk, however small, even when this forces people to keep suffering old risks, which are sometimes huge. (The supply of lifesaving vaccines has been threatened in just this way.) When this happens, we kill anonymous people in the name of safety. If this behavior raises insurance premiums in perverse way, it could discourage a shift to safer manufacturing technologies. Since such costs can grown or shrink independent of real World of engineering and human welfare, they are beyond our ability to estimate. Considering the costs of sales, distribution, training—these costs will depend on the product: Is it as common as potatoes, and as simple to use? Or is it rare and complex, so that determining what you need, where to get it, and how to use it are the main problems? These service costs are real but can be distinguished from costs of the thing itself. Essentially, molecular manufacturing should eventually lead to lower costs. The initial expense of developing the technology and specific products will be substantial, but the cost of production can be low. Energy costs (at present prices) and material costs (ditto) would be significant, but not enormous. They were quoted on a perkilogram basis, but nanotechnological products, being made of superior materials, will often weigh only a fraction of what familiar products do. (Ballast, were in needed, will be dirt-cheap.) Equipment costs, land costs, waste-disposal costs, and labor costs can be low by the very nature of the technology. #RandolphHarris 19 of 20

Costs of design, regulation, and insurance will depend strongly on human tastes and are beyond predicting. Basic products, like clothing and housing, can become inexpensive unless we do something to keep them costly. As the cost of improved safety falls, there will be less reason to accept unsafe products. Molecular manufacturing uses processes as controlled and efficient as the molecular processes in plants. Its products could be as inexpensive as potatoes. This may sound too good to be true (and there are downsides, as we will later discuss), but why should it not be true? Should we not expect large changes to come with the replacement of modern technology? An argument is sometimes made that promiscuous use of sacred or serious symbols by corporate America is a form of healthy irreverence. Irreverence, after all, is an antidote to excessive or artificial piety, and is especially necessary when piety is used as a political weapon. One might say that irreverence, not blasphemy, is the ultimate answer to idolatry, which is why most cultures have established means by which irreverence may be expressed—in the theater, in jokes, in song, in political rhetoric, even in holidays. However, there is nothing in the commercial exploitation of traditional symbols that suggests an excess of piety is itself a vice. Business is too serious a business for that, and in any case has no objection to piety, as long as it is directed toward the idea of consumption, which is never treated as a laughing matter. In using Uncle Sam or the flag, or the American Eagle or images of presidents, in employing such names as Liberty Insurance, Freedom Transmission Repair, and Lincoln Savings and Loan, business does not offer us examples of irreverence. It is merely declaring the irrelevance, in Technopoly, of distinguishing between the scared and the profane. #RandolphHarris 20 of 20

Cresleigh Homes

You’ll never feel cramped in Model 4 at #Havenwood! This is the largest home offered in this community, and there’s even a great room and loft upstairs for more great flexible entertainment space. 😍

Like all our #CresleighHomes, this one comes with an All-Ready connected home system, including a video doorbell and digital deadbolt.

It’s the perfect time to make moves to the home of your dreams, and it’s not far away!

Home Site 67 is a Residence Four plan, the largest home offered in Cresleigh Havenwood. This two-story, 3,489 square foot home features four bedrooms, including one suite on the first floor, three and one half bathroom, and a true three-car garage.

The covered porch provided a warm entry and the dining room is located right off the entry way. The Kitchen is connected through the Butler’s Pantry providing ample storage. The great room and loft upstairs allow for various uses that will suit your family and lifestyle.

This home includes over $50,000 in options and upgrades
• Durable luxury vinyl plank flooring throughout the first floor
• Gray Shaker Cabinetry with Soft-Close Doors & Drawers
• Over Island Pendants and Under-Cabinet Lighting
• Gourmet Kitchen option with upgraded appliances
• Stainless Steel Farm Sink and Upgraded Faucet
• Flat Screen Prewire in Great Room
• Owned Solar

Best of all, each Cresleigh home comes fully equipped with an All Ready connected home! This smart home package comes included with your home and features great tools including: video door bell and digital deadbolt for the front door, connect home hub so you can set scenes and routines to make life just a little easier. Two smart switches and USB outlets are also included, plus we’ll gift you a Google Home Hub and Google Home Mini! https://cresleigh.com/havenwood/quick-move-homesite-67/

One Picture is Worth a Thousand Words

On a bench in the park, mid-afternoon, dreamily noting the drift of the species back and forth—to think—this multitude is but a wee little fraction of the Earth’s population! And all blood-kin to me, every one! Eve ought to have come with me; this would excite her affectionate heart, she was never able to keep her composure when she came upon a relative; she would try to kiss every one of these people, African and European and all. [A baby-wagon passes.] How little change one can notice—none at all, in fact. I remember the first child well—let me see…it is three hundred thousand years ago come Tuesday; this one is just like it. So between the first one and the last one there is really nothing to choose. The same insufficiency of hair, the same absence of teeth, the same feebleness of body and apparent preoccupation of mind, the same general adorableness all around. Yet Eve worshiped that early one, and it was pretty to see her with it. This latest one’s mother worships it; it shows in her eyes—it is the very look that used to shine in Eve’s. To think—that so down a procession three hundred thousand years long and remain the same, without shade of change! Yet here it is, lighting this young creature’s face just as it lighted Eve’s in the long ago—the newest thing I have seen in the Earth, and the oldest. Of course, the Dinosaur—but that is in another class. We must try to understand the four chief functions of the human machine. I am sure everyone knows what the intellectual or thinking function is. All mental processes are included here: realization of an impression, formation of representations and concepts, reasoning, comparison, affirmation, negation, formation of words, speech, imagination, and so on. #RandolphHarris 1 of 20

The second function is feeling or emotions: joy, sorrow, fear, astonishment, and so on. Even if you are sure that it is clear to you how, and in what, emotions differ from thoughts, I should advise you to verify all your views in regard to this. We mix thought and feelings in our ordinary thinking and speaking; but for the beginning of self-study it is necessary to know clearly which is which. The two functions following, instinctive and moving, will take longer to understand, because in no system of ordinary psychology are these functions described and divided in the right way. The words “instinct,” “instinctive,” are generally used in the wrong sense and very often in no sense at all. In particular, to instinct are generally ascribed external functions which are in reality moving functions, and sometimes emotion. The instinctive function in man includes in itself four different classes of functions: All the inner work of the organism, all physiology, so to speak; digestion and assimilation of food, breathing, circulation of the blood, all the work of inner organs, the building of new cells, the elimination or worked-out materials, the work of glands of inner secretion, and so on. The so-called five sense: sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch; and all other senses such as the sense of weight, of temperature, of dryness or of moisture, and so on; that is, all indifferent sensations—sensations which by themselves are neither pleasant nor unpleasant. All physical emotions; that is, all physical sensations which are either pleasant or unpleasant. All kinds of pain or unpleasant feeling such as unpleasant taste or unpleasant smell, and all kinds of physical pleasure, such as pleasant taste, pleasant smell, and so on. #RandolphHarris 2 of 20

The moving function includes in itself all external movements, such as walking, writing, speaking, eating, and memories of them. To the moving function also belong those movements which in ordinary language are called “instinctive,” such as catching a falling object without thinking. The difference between the instinctive and the moving function is very clear and can be easily understood if one simply remembers that all instinctive functions without exception are inherent and that there is no necessity to learn them in order to use them; whereas on the other hand, none of the moving functions are inherent and one has to learn them all as a child learns to walk, or as one learns to write or to draw. Besides these normal moving functions, there are also some strange moving functions which represent useless work of the human machine not intended by nature, but which occupy a very large place in man’s life and use a great quantity of his energy. These are: formation of dreams, imagination, daydreaming, talking with oneself, all talking for talking’s sake, and generally, all uncontrolled and uncontrollable manifestations. The four functions—intellectual, emotional, instinctive, and moving—must first be understood in all their manifestations, and later they must be observed in oneself. Such self-observation, that is, observation on the right basis, with a preliminary understanding of the states of consciousness and of different functions, constitutes the basis of self-study; that is, the beginning of psychology. #RandolphHarris 3 of 20

It is very important to remember that in observing different functions it is useful to observe at the same time their relation to different states of consciousness. Let us take the three states of consciousness—sleep, waking state, and possible glimpses of self-consciousness—and the four functions—thinking, feeling, instinctive, and moving. All four function can manifest themselves in sleep, but their manifestations are desultory and unreliable; they cannot be used in any way, they just go by themselves. In the state of waking consciousness or relative consciousness, they can to a certain extent serve for our orientation. Their results can be compared, verified, straightened out; and although they may create many illusions, still in our ordinary state we have nothing else and must make of them what we can. If we knew the quantity of wrong observations, wrong theories, wrong deductions and conclusions made in this state, we should cease to believe ourselves altogether. However, men do not realize how deceptive their observations and their theories can be, and they continue to believe in them. It is this tht keeps men from observing the rare moments when their functions manifest themselves in connection with glimpses of the third state of consciousness; tht is, of self-consciousness. All this means that each of the four functions can manifest itself in each of the three states of consciousness. However, the results are quite different. When we learn to observe these results and their difference, we shall understand the right relation between functions and states of consciousness. #RandolphHarris 4 of 20

However, before even considering the difference in function in relation to states of consciousness, it is necessary to understand that man’s consciousness and man’s functions are quite different phenomena, of quite different nature and depending on different causes, and that one can exist without the other. Functions can exist without consciousness, and consciousness can exist without functions. We can stop to compose ourselves at any time. Composure is the result, not the precondition, of assembling the events of our lives into a meaningful whole. The word compose comes from the Latin root pausare, to rest, nd the Greek pauein, to stop. If we are fortunate, we get to take a long pause before the stop of death. When frailty or illness limits our external activities, we are given the opportunity to expand our reach into ourselves. Life has the shape and meaning of a great work of art: it is one’s task to select, telescope and transmute the facts so that their universal significance should be revealed. When a society offers at its apex a scheme of things, inclusive and integrative of all subordinate orientations, and when that scheme by virtue of being generally accepted as true holds great authority, then that society is unified and cohesive, is an organism. Every leader seeks to embody such a scheme of things, and charismatically to make it ever more powerfully appealing, binding on the loyalties of all. A number of the things we research in dealing with specialized characteristics have recurring themes in the work of complexity. Many of these themes can be distilled and brought to bear on the problem of analyzing interventions in a World that is hard to predict because it is complex. #RandolphHarris 5 of 20

In contest, a World that is hard to predict merely because it is complicated can be attacked in quite a different way. For example, nearly additive contributions of factors mean tht independent studies of the important factors can later be merged at acceptable cost. The Human Genome Project is a large bet that much can be understood via such a “divide and conquer” strategy. Nevertheless, in many cases the interactions of the parts of the system are critical, and complexity reigns. Our framework can be developed to give a unified view of the work on complex systems. As we look across many lines of this research, we see in most of the studies collections of elements—what we have called populations of agents. Usually those elements subdivide into some types (for example, buyers, and sellers, inhibiting molecules and potentiting ones, BMWs and Mercedes). Each of the is connected to some, but usually not all, of the others. The connections are through relations, and there is tremendous variety across fields in what those relations are and how they work (for example, magnetic attraction, organizational authority, electrical stimulation, affinity of pleasures of the flesh, chemical inhibition, geographical proximity or ethnic hostility). Each element in one of those complex systems has patterns of action that affect those connected to it. The research very often centers on the emergent global dynamics of the whole system. It asks the questions like: How (or when) does a system of locally trading agents develop prices that will cause marketwide inventories to clear? How does a brain made of interconnected neurons learn? How does a pile of sand generate its characteristic mix of large and small avalanches? #RandolphHarris 6 of 20

How does news about a vacant job successfully make its way from an employer to potential employees in distant towns? How does a gene pool remix itself over time to create and retain genotypes that may be fit for a changing environment? How do we nurture a network of trust that permits informal credit mechanisms to foster trade efficiencies? It is usual in this approach to view the global properties of the systems as emerging from the actions of its part, rather than seeing the actions of parts as being imposed from a dominant central source. This is not a denial that there are times when systems have effective central authorities or dominant influences. However, the project of complexity theories in such cases is to understand how those dominant influences come about, what sustains (or undermines) them, and how local action responds in the face of global constraints. An excellent example is the work of Padgett and Ansell (1993) on the emergence of a new form of state in medieval Florence as Medici power built up out of tensions within the marital, residential, and commercial networks of the city. Finally, many complex systems—but by no means all—are “adaptive.” As we said earlier, in systems we call adaptive the strategies used by agents or a population change over time as the agents or population works for improved performance. #RandolphHarris 7 of 20

When we use the phrase Complex Adaptive System, we leave open the question of whether the agents or population actually achieves improved performance. If we are designing interventions, improvement on some measure is what we want to promote. For a system to exhibit adaptation that enhances survival (or another measure of success), it must increase the likelihood of effective strategies and reduce the likelihood of ineffective strategies. We call such a process attribution of credit if an agent uses a performance criterion to increase the frequency of successful strategies or decreases the frequency of unsuccessful ones. The latest erosion of the United States of America-Europe ties was typically attributed to their shape differences over the Ukrainian war. However, far deeper forces are at work. The alliance can be said to have cracked the way Western Europeans stopped fearing an attack by Russia—and concluded they no longer needed U.S. troops and taxpayers to defend them. However, this is not true because they are now relying on American taxpayer money during this war and as a result of the hard economic conditions. For today’s widening split actually began generations earlier when the United States of America started to change its relationship to the deep fundamental and began building a knowledge economy. Europe’s core countries, by contrast, focused on reconstruction after World War II and subsequent expansion of their smokestack economies. #RandolphHarris 8 of 20

Rich with talent, top-notch scientists, I.T. engineers, futurists and thinkers, Europe for a time seemed poised to embrace the new technological potentials. However, it was largely led b rear-mirror business and political leaders steeped in the guiding doctrines of the industrial age and incapable of thinking beyond them. It is true that in recent years Europe has moved faster than the United States of America in several advanced sectors, including mobile-phone use. Its Airbus for a time did well competing against an under-the-weather Boeing. It may lead the United States of America in grid computing. The French are strong competitors in the satellite-launch business, and Europe is planning to loft a rival to the American Global Positioning System. Tim Berners-Lee, who is British, gave us the World Wide Web. Linus Torvalds, a Finn, gave of Linux. And the European Space Agency led the project that, in collaboration with NASA, put a probe on Titan, Saturn’s moon. This list could easily be extended. However, all these successes needed to be set against a larger, much darker picture. To this day, key industrial principles such as standardization, concentration, maximization of scale and centralization still dominate European Union thinking. Thus, as knowledge-based economies move from massification toward de-massification of products and markets—accompanied by growing social and cultural diversity—the European Union has been homogenizing national differences. Giving lip service to the concept of diversity, it has, in fact, kept busy attempting to “harmonize” everything from taxes to cosmetics, job resumes to motorcycle laws. #RandolphHarris 9 of 20

In applying one-size-fits-all rules, moreover, as The Economist points out, it usually opts for the most stringent and least flexible of the available versions. As in Japan and elsewhere, success in advanced knowledge economies requires increasingly flexible business and governmental organizations. However, the European specializes in imposing inflexible, top-down industrial-style controls—even on the budgets and financial decisions of its member nations. Under the Maastricht Treaty each nation using the euro as currency was bound to limit government deficits to nor more than 3 percent of its GDP. This was done largely at the imperial instance of Germany, which eventually found the limits so restrictive that it, itself, repeatedly violated the inflexible standard it helped impose on everyone else. Around 6 percent of the 12 euro-zone members are in violation of the pact. French and Dutch voters rejected the proposed E.U. constitution, a four-hundred-page masterwork of bureaucratic overkill. Critics noted that the authors of the U.S. Constitution required fewer than ten pages, including the Bill of Rights. Most countries use tariffs, quotas, and other measures to restrict important competition and protect domestic industries. Such policies rise prices, and hurt all domestic users of the protected product. Economists have estimated that when important quotas are used to protect industries such as steel, textiles, or sugar, the rest of us pay higher prices amounting to roughly $100,000 for each job saved. How is it that the gains to a few always get priority over the much larger aggregate losses to the many? #RandolphHarris 10 of 20

The trick is to bring up the cases one at a time. First, 10,000 jobs in the shoe industry are at risk. To save them would cost a billion dollars to the rest of us, or just over $4 each. Who would not agree to pay $4 to save 10,000 jobs even for total strangers, especially when competing nations can be blamed for their plight? Then along comes the garment industry, the steel industry, the auto industry, and so on. Before we know it, we have agreed to pay over $50 billion, which is more than $200 each, or nearly $1,000 per family. (Which is why so many people want to cut off other nations from receiving economic assistance. The money we send them causes us a deficit, and then America cannot afford to pay for infrastructure improvements and social services that Americans need. Often time new taxes are born to help offset the cost, but where does it stop, how much more do we have to pay when we are taxed without representation? Before you know it, we have so many new taxes and all taxes are so high that America becomes a communist nation.) If we had foreseen the whole process, we might have thought the cost too high, and insisted that workers in each of these industries bear the risks of international trade just as they would bear any other economic risk. Decisions made case by case can lead to undesirable results overall. In fact, a sequence of majority votes can lead to an outcome that everyone regards as worse than the status quo. The income tax reform of 1985-86 almost collapsed because the Senate initially took a case-by-case approach. #RandolphHarris 11 of 20

In the first round of the Finance Committee’s markup sessions, the amended Treasury proposal became so weighted down with special interest provisions that it sank to a merciful death. The senators realized that they were “powerless” to prevent any one organized lobby from getting special treatment. Yet the combination of these lobbyists could destroy the bill, and this would be worse than producing no legislation at all. So Senator Packwood, the committee chairman, made his own lobby: he persuaded a majority of the committee members to vote against any amendment to the tax bill, even those amendments that especially favored their own constituents. The reform was enacted. However, special provisions are already staging a comeback, one or two at a time. Along similar lines, the line-item veto would allow the president to veto legislation selectively. If a bill authorized money for school lunches and a new space shuttle, the president would have the option of neither, either, or both, instead of the current neither or both. Although a first reaction is that this allows the president greater control over legislation, the opposite might end up happening as Congress would be more selective about which bill it process. While the line-item veto is generally thought to be unconstitutional, this question may have to be resolved by the Supreme Court. #RandolphHarris 12 of 20

These problems arise because myopic decision-makers fail to look ahead and see the whole picture. In the case of tax reform, the Senate recovered its vision just in time; the issue of protectionism still suffers. The pulsating organization is one that expands and contracts in a regular rhythm. A good example is the U.S. Census Bureau, which swells to enormous size every ten years, then shrinks, starts planning for the next decennial count, and swells again. Ordinarily staffed by about 7,000 regular employees, the Bureau maintains twelve regional centers around the United States of America. However, to conduct a complete census, it sets up a parallel or “shadow” center for each of the twelve. Through them more, than 1.2 million applicants ae interviewed to find the 400,000 “troops” who actually fan out and knock on every American door. These shadow centers are designed to last one year or a year and a half, and then to be dismantled. The staff then shrivels back to around 7,000. At which point planning begins for the next count ten years in the future. Carrying this operation through successfully ought to earn the managerial equivalent of an Olympic gold medal. The 1990 census was fraught with bugs and bloopers. However, the task would clearly daunt many a senior business executive. Indeed, many firms will notice that their own problems, though smaller in scale, are not entirely dissimilar. For “pulsating organizations” are present in many industries as well. #RandolphHarris 13 of 20

We see them in companies that gear up for annual model changes, then gear down again; in retail firms that staff up for Christmas and lay off in January; and in pickup crews used for film and television production. In fact, one of the most rapidly proliferating formats in business today is the task force or project team, examples of what we term “ad-hocracy.” These, however, are only variants of the pulsating organization. While true “pulsers” grow and shrink repetitively, a project team normally carries out a single task. In therefore grows and declines once and then is dismantled. It is, in effect, a “single-pulse” organization. Pulsing organizations have a unique information and communication requirements. For its recent census, the Census Bureau’s shadow centers, for example, were linked by some $100 million worth of computers and telecommunications equipment in a temporary network designed to be disposed of, or folded back into the permanent organization. Executives in charge of pulsing companies or units often find their power pulsing too. Funds dry up as the unit shrinks. People disappear. The available pool of knowledge or talent diminished. The power of rival units in the company expands relatively as the unit continues to shrink. In a pulsating power structure, the executive who commands a large project may be a “700-pound gorilla” one day—and a money the next. As many pulsating organizations interact, they lend a kind of rhythm to the economy. #RandolphHarris 14 of 20

Pulsing, however, is not only a matter of size. Some companies pulse back and forth between centralization and decentralization. With each swing or pulse, information structures are changed—and power therefore shifts. The speedup and growing unpredictability of change point toward faster pulsing in the ten years ahead. It is possible that, some day soon, an advertising man who must create a television commercial for a new California Chardonnay will have the following inspiration: Jesus is standing alone in a desert oasis. A gentle breeze flutters the leaves of the stately palms behind him. Soft Mideastern music caresses the air. Jesus holds in his hand a bottle of wine at which he gazes adoringly. Turning toward the camera, he says, “When I transformed water into wine at Cana, this is what I had in mind. Try it today. You’ll become a believer.” If you think such a commercial is not possible in your lifetime, then consider this: As I write, there is an oft-seen commercial for Hebrew National Frankfurters. It features a dapper-looking Uncle Sam in his traditional red, white, and blue outfit. While Uncle Sam assumes appropriate facial expressions, a voice-over describes the delicious and healthful frankfurters produced by Hebrew National. Toward the end of the commercial, the voice stresses that Hebrew National Frankfurters surpass federal standards for such products. Why? Because, the voice says as the camera shifts our point of view upward toward Heaven, “We have to answer to a Higher Authority.” #RandolphHarris 15 of 20

I will leave it to the reader to decide which is more incredible—Jesus being used to sell wine or God being used to sell frankfurters. Whichever you decide, you must keep in mind that neither the hypothetical commercial nor the real one is an example of blasphemy. They are much worse than that. Blasphemy is, after all, among the highest tributes that can be paid to the power of a symbol. The blasphermer take symbols as seriously as the idolater, which is why the President of the United States of America (circa 1991) whishes to punish, through a constitutional amendment, desecrators of the American flag. What we are talking about here is not blasphemy but trivialization, against which there can be no laws. In Technopoly, the trivialization of significant cultural symbols is largely conducted by commercial enterprise. This occurs not because corporate America is greedy but because the adoration of technology pre-empts the adoration of anything else. Symbols tht draw their meaning from traditional religious or national contexts must therefor be made impotent as quickly as possible—that is, drained of sacred or even serious connotations. The elevation of one god requires the demotion of another. “Thou shalt have no other gods before me” applies as well to technological divinity as any other. There are two intertwined reasons that make it possible to trivialize traditional symbols. The first, as neatly expressed by the social critic Jay Rosen, is that, although symbols, especially images, are endlessly repeatable, they are not inexhaustible. Second, the more frequently a significant symbol is used, the less potent is its meaning. #RandolphHarris 16 of 20

The beginnings, in the mid-nineteenth century, of a “graphics revolution” allowed the easy reproduction of visual imges, thus providing the masses with continuous access to the symbols and icons of their culture. Through prints, lithographs, photographs, and, later, movies and television, religious and national symbols became commonplaces, breeding indifference if not necessarily contempt. As if to answer those who believe that the emotional impact of a sacred image is always and ever the same, we should be reminded that prior to the graphics revolution most people saw relatively few images. Paintings of Jesus or the Madonna, for example, would have been seen rarely outside the churches. Paintings of great national leaders could be seen only in the homes of the wealthy or in government buildings. There were images to be seen in books, but books were expensive and spent most of their time on shelves. Images were not a conscious part of the environment, and their scarcity contributed toward their special power. When the scale or accessibility was altered, the experience of encountering an image necessarily changed; that is to say, it diminished in importance. One picture, we are told, is worth a thousand words. However, a thousand pictures, especially if they are of the same object, may not be worth anything at all. This is a common enough psychological principle. You may demonstrate this for yourself (if you have not at some time already done so) by saying any word, even a significant one, over and over again. Sooner than you expect, you will find that the word has been transformed into a meaningless sound, as repetition drains it out of its symbolic value. #RandolphHarris 17 of 20

Any male who has served in, let us say, the United States of America’s Army or spent time in a college dormitory has had this experience with what are called obscene words, especially the notorious four-letter word which I am loath to reproduce here. Words that you have been taught not to use and that normally evoke an embarrassed or disconcerted response, when used too often, are stripped of their power to shock, to embarrass, to call attention to a special frame of mind. They become only sounds, not symbols. Moreover, the journey to meaninglessness of symbols is a function not only of the frequency with which they are invoked but of the indiscriminate contexts in which they are used. An obscenity, for example, can do its work best when it is reserved for situations that call forth anger, disgust, or hatred. When it is used as an adjective for every third noun in a sentence, irrespective of emotional context, it is deprived of its magical effects and, indeed, of its entire point. This is what happens when Abraham Lincoln’s image, or George Washington’s, is used to announce linen sales on President’s Day, or Martin Luther King’s birthday celebration is taken as an occasion for furniture discounts. It is what happens when Uncle Sam, God, or Jesus is employed as an agent of the profane World for an essentially trivial purpose. In the meantime, we should be able to exercise our humanity, governing each other and being governed, instead of encasing ourselves in the laden armor of our technological schizophrenia. #RandolphHarris 18 of 20

Some costs apply to a kind of product, regardless of how many copies are made: these include design costs, technology-licensing costs, regulatory-approval costs, and the like. Other costs apply to each unit a product: these include the costs of labor, energy, raw materials, production equipment, production sites, insurance, and waste disposal. The per-kind costs can become very low if production runs are large. If these costs stay high, it will be because people prefer new products or their new benefits, despite the cost—hardly cause for complaint. The more basic and easier to analyze costs are per-unit costs. A picture to keep in mind here is of Desert Rose Industries, where molecular machinery does most of the work, and where products are made from parts that are ultimately made from simple chemical substances. Let us consider some cost components. Energy: Manufacturing at the molecular scale need not use a lot of energy. Plants build billions of tons of highly patterned material every year using available solar energy. Molecular manufacturing can be efficient, in the sense that the energy needed to build a block of product should be comparable to the energy released in burning an equivalent mass of wood or coal. If this energy were supplied as electricity at today’s costs, the energy costs of manufacturing would be something like a dollar per kilogram. We will return to the cost of energy later. Raw Materials: Molecular manufacturing will not need exotic materials as inputs. Plain bulk chemicals will suffice, and this means materials no more exotic than the fuels and feedstocks that are, for now, derived from petroleum and biomass—gasoline, methanol, ammonia, and hydrogen. These typically cost tends of cent per kilogram. If bizarre compounds are used, they can be made internally. Rare elements could be avoided, but might be useful in trace amounts. #RandolphHarris 19 of 20

The total quality of raw materials consumed will be smaller than in conventional manufacturing processes because less will be wasted. Capital Equipment and Maintenance: As we saw in the Desert Rose scenario, molecular manufacturing can be used to build all of the equipment needed for molecular manufacturing. It seems that this equipment—everything from large vats to submicroscopic special-purpose assemblers—can be reasonably durable, lasting for months or years before being recycled and replaced. If the equipment were to cost dollars per kilogram, and produce many thousands of kilograms of product in its life, the cost of the equipment would add little to the cost of the product. Waste Disposal: Today’s manufacturing waste is dumped into the air, water, and landfills. There need be no such waste with molecular manufacturing. Excess materials of the kind now spewed into the environment could instead be completely recycled internally, or could instead be completely recycled internally, or could emerge from the manufacturing process in pure form, ready for use in some other process. In an advanced process, the only wastes would be leftover atoms resulting from a bad mix of raw materials. Most of these leftover atoms would be ordinary minerals and simple gases like oxygen, the main “waste” from the molecular machinery of plants. Molecular manufacturing produces no new elements—if arsenic comes out, arsenic must have gone in, and the process is not to blame for its existence. Any intrinsically toxic materials of this sort can at least be put in the safest form we can devise for disposal. One option would be to chemically bond it into a stable mineral and put it back where it came from. #RandolphHarris 20 of 20

Cresleigh Homes

Welcome to Residence 4 – the largest home in the #MillsStation community at #CresleighRanch! 👏

With 2,692 square feet at your disposal, you’ll find that there’s enough room for all the party guests with space to spare. Whether you’re hosting a holiday party 🦃 or just cooking up something for the special people in your life, you’ll have everything you need in this home!

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