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Man, evidently, was tired of merely having plants and animals and slaves to serve him, and robbing nature’s treasures of metal and stone, wood and yarn, of managing her water in canals and wells, of breaking her resistances with ships and roads, bridges and tunnels and dams. Now he meant not merely to plunder her of her materials, but to enslave and harness her very forces so as to multiply his own strength. This monstrous and unparalleled idea is as old as old as the Fuastian Culture itself. Already in the tenth century we meet with technical constructions of wholly new sort. Already the steam engine, the steamship, and the air machine are in the thoughts of Roger Bacon and Albertus Magnus. And many a monk busied himself in this cell with the idea of Perpetual Motion. This last idea never thereafter let go its hold on us, for success would mean the final victory over “God or Nature” (Deus sive Natura), a small World of one’s own creation moving like the great World, by virtue of its own forces and obeying the hand of man alone. To build a World oneself to be oneself God—that is the Faustian inventor’s dream, and from it has sprung all our designing and re-designing of machines to approximate as nearly as possible the unattainable limit of perpetual motion. The booty-idea of the beast of prey is thought out to its logical end. Not this or complete with its secret of force, is dragged away as spoil to be built into our Culture. However, one who was not himself possessed by this will to power over all nature would necessarily feel that this was devilish, and in fact men have always regarded machines as the invention of the devil—with Roger begins the long line of scientists who suffer as magicians and heretics. #RandolphHarris 1 of 20

After the great moment in German thought—of Kant, Goethe, Schiller and Hegel, in which the rediscovery of Greece played so important a role—Greek scholarship retired to the universities, where it was again a dead piece of learning, unable itself to inspire or produce a compelling vision that could transform men. It became studied by bourgeois professors who educated bourgeois men for whom, as with Aschenbach, the Greeks were just “culture.” The Greek splendor, which had formed such heroic figures just a half-century earlier, became a mystery. Nietzsche, acutely aware of this splendor and its disappearance from the scene, blamed the scholars, or rather blamed something that informed scholarship. A classical scholar who certainly would have been among the greatest who ever lived if he had not been called to philosophy, Nietzsche attempted the last great return to the Greeks. Like his German predecessors, he returned to Greek poetry in particular. However, he coupled his taste for the tragedies with something very new—a radical attack on Socrates, the founder of the tradition of rationalism, which is the essence of the university. This is probably the first attack made by a philosopher on Socrates, and it is a violent one, continuing throughout Nietzsche’s whole career. What is fascinating for us in this is that Nietzsche, and Heidegger following him, are the first modern thinkers since the days of Hobbes, Spinoza and Descartes to take Socrates—or any classical philosopher’s teaching—really serious as an opponent, as a living opponent rather than as a cultural artifact. Socrates is alive and must be overcome. It is essential to recognize that this is the issue in Nietzsche. It is not a historical or cultural question. It is simply a classic philosophic disputation: Was Socrates right or wrong? #RandolphHarris 2 of 20

Nietzsche’s indictment of Socrates is that his rationalism, his utilitarianism, subverted and explained away that great stupidity which is noble instinct. He destroyed the tragic sense of life, which intuited man’s true situation amidst things and allowed for creative forming of life against the terror of existence, unendowed with and unguided by any pre-existing forms or patterns. Instinct or fatality prior to reason and vulnerable to reason, establishes the table of laws or valuation within which healthy reason works. A darkness on top of a void is the condition of life and creation, and it is dispelled in the light of rational analysis. The poet, in his act of creation, knows this. The scientist and the scholar never do. The act of creation is what forms cultures and folk-minds. There cannot be, as Socrates believed, the pure mind, which is trans-historical. This belief is the fundamental premise and error of science, an error that becomes manifestly fatal in dealing with human things. The method of the sciences is designed to see only what is everywhere always, whereas what is particular and emergent is all that counts historically and culturally. Homer is not merely one example of an epic, or the Bible of a revealed text, but that is what science sees them as, and the only reason it is interested in them. The scholar turns away from them to comparative religion or comparative literature, id est, either to indifference or to a flabby ecumenism compounded out of the lowest common denominator of a variety of old and incompatible creations. The scholars cannot understand the texts that he purports to interpret and explain. Schiller might be able to grasp the essence of the Iliad because as a creator he is akin to Homer. #RandolphHarris 3 of 20

He could not understand Homer as Homer understood himself, because his mind was of a different historical epoch. However, he could understand what it means to be a poet. A scholar can do neither. From the point of view of life, and from the point of view of truth, modern scholarship is a failure. Hegel ridicules the typical German gymnasium teacher who explains that Alexander the Great had a pathological love of power. The teacher proves the assertion by the fact that Alexander conquered the World. The teacher’s freedom from this illness is attested to by the fact that he has not conquered the World. This story encapsulates Nietzsche’s criticism of the German university and its classical scholarship. The scholar cannot understand the will to power, not a cause recognized by science, which made Alexander different from others, because the scholar neither has it nor does his method permit him to have it or see it. The scholar could never conquer the mind of man. Nietzsche’s return to the example of the ancients, and his rigorous drawing of the consequences of what German humane scholarship really believed, had a stunning effect on German university life and on the German respect for reason altogether. Artists received a new license, and even philosophy began to reinterpret itself as a form of art. The poet won the old war between philosophy and poetry, in which Socrates had been philosophy’s champion. Nietzsche’s war on the university led in two directions—either to an abandonment of the university by serious men, or to its reform to make it play a role in the creation of culture. The university ruled by Hegel, the modern Aristotle, had to be reconstituted, as the discredited medieval university had been made over by the now discredited Enlightenment university. #RandolphHarris 4 of 20

Psychologist Erich Fromm divided religions into two principal categories: humanitarian and authoritarian. Humanitarian religions, according to Dr. Fromm, concern themselves with the goals of self-realization, while authoritarian religions emphasize the importance of their own power. “The essential element in authoritarian religion,” he wrote, “is the surrender to a power transcending man. The main virtue of this type of religion is obedience, the cardinal sin, disobedience.” Most Satanic cults are authoritarian in nature. The members join the group to remedy feelings of powerlessness and inadequacy by submitting to cult leaders in order to be taught the “occult secrets of magic.” Thus, they feel themselves as part of an elite group, in possession of exclusive powers, superior to the rest of humanity. Paul Valentine unabashedly states that one of the reasons he started a Satanic religion was the feeling of power it gives him. While teaching that the ultimate goal of the Setian is self-realization, Michael Aquino states that the governing principle of magic is the ability to “control people without their realizing how or why they are being control.” Gini Graham Scott’s experience with the Temple of Set echoes my own observations of other Satanic and occult groups: “The power of the High Priest increases the power group members feel. He derives much of his power from the members’ belief that he is better able to communicate and manifest (Set) through his being. Also, when members honor him with salutes and hails, he appears that much more powerful. His power, in turn, reflects back on the group.” #RandolphHarris 5 of 20

However, although the orientation of both the leadership and the laity of most of neo-Satanic churches such as the Temple of Set and the Church of Satan is authoritarian, and stressed control, there is no evidence that any socalled “brainwashing” techniques are employed within these groups to program the thoughts of their members—as has been alleged in contemporary cults such as the Moonies or the Hare Krishans. James T. Richardson, Mary Harder, and Robert Simmonds, in their paper, “Thought Reform and the Jesus Movement,” equate the conversion processes used in some cults in modern “Jesus Movement” with those employed by the Chinese on Western prisoners of war in Korea in the early 1950s. Such comparisons have also been made by psychiatrist Robert J. Lifton, who related such “thought-reform” to religion with his concept of “religious totalism,” which he broke down into eight separate elements: (1) milieu control, or the control of human communication, (2) mystical manipulation, or the installation of a sense of higher purpose by which members are taught they have been ”chose” by forces outside themselves to carry on some mystical imperative, (3) the demand for purity, or the adoption by believers of black or white picture of the World, (4) the cult of confession for past sins, (5) the “sacred science,” which teaches that the group’s dogma is completely true, (6) the loading of language, or the language of “non-thought,” (7) the subordination of human experience to the claims of doctrine, and (8) the severance of ties with those not doctrinally pure (family, friends etcetera.)  #RandolphHarris 6 of 20

Lifton suggests that the more those eight components combine in a group situation, the more likely is the possibility of altering a member’s behavior and thoughts. That would be true in religious cults or radical political movements, and the dynamics have been clearly observed to be in operation in such cults as the Jim Jones cult in Guyana, the Moonies, and the Yahwehs, as well as the Manson Family. The more communication from outside is cut, and the more dependence upon the group is fostered, the more likely group behavior will be infected by the beliefs of the leader are violent, the group can turn violent. With the possible exception of The Process in the early 1970s, no organized Satanic church has attempted to attain that kind of control of its membership. The Church of Satan, the Temple of Set, and the Church of Satanic Liberation, although displaying some of Lifton’s eight components—assuming at times a fascistic, authoritarian tone—have not attempted to break down the thoughts of their members. In fact, their stress on egotism, individualistic thought, and nonconformity—although within their groups, their members have simply arrived at another kind of conformity—has been a barrier to the implantation of any cohesive system of thought. This, perhaps, has been a source of failure of such groups as LaVey’s and Aquino’s to consolidate and add to the gains in membership they made in the early 1970s. Back in 1971, before he became certain that Set was a real entity, Michael Aquino seemed to anticipate this built-in program for failure in his own temple when he wrote that “a large percentage of letters to The Cloven Hoof portray Satan as a de facto God to be served, worshipped and adored—not as an anti-god. For such persons, the distinction between Christianity and Satanism is principally semantic. The long-term influence of such a trend could be disastrous and I suspect the question may be called shortly. Some people, I suppose, cannot exist without a master to serve. Erich From is alive and lurking in the ritual chamber.” #RandolphHarris 7 of 20

A new concept of business is taking shape in response to the info-wars now raging across the World economy. As knowledge becomes more central to the creation of wealth, we begin to think of the corporation as an enhancer of knowledge. We speak of adding vale by upgrading information. We talk about improving the firm’s human resources. And we begin poking our noses into information that does not belong to us. All, it would seem, is fair in love and info-war. On April 25, 1985, the telephone rand at the offices of Texas Instruments in Dallas, Texas. A voice with an international accent asked for a meeting with a company security executive. A Syrian electrical engineer who sought political asylum in the United States of America, Sam Kuzbary had once worked at TI before being fired as a security risk. Rumor had it that the CIA had helped him get out of Syria, where he had once worked for the Syrian military. Kuzbary carried a gun in his car. Now, he said, he wanted to ingratiate himself with TI and get his job back. He had information, he said, about important secrets that had been stolen from TI. That call led to an early morning raid by Dallas police on the offices of a small high-tech firm called Voice Control Systems, Inc., founded originally by a real estate developer who wound up in jail for drug smuggling. Now owned by a different investment group and headed by a former president of U.S Telephone, VCS, it turned out, employed numerous former TI researchers, including Kuzbary. What the police found were 7,985 filed copied from the computers at TI’s advanced research project on speech recognition. A scorching race was (and still is) under way among major computer firms, including IBM Texas Instruments, to find a way for computers to understand human speech. (They can already and are only getting better, but the technology is costly.) #RandolphHarris 8 of 20

Everyone knows that whoever wins this technological race will have the potential for fabulous profits. In fact, at the time, Michael Dertouzos, head of computer science at the Massachusetts Institutes of Technology, considered that “whoever breaks the logjam to make machines understand spoken words will gain control over the information revolution.” Were the engineers who jumped ship at TI and joined VCS really guilty of stealing research worth $20 million, as TI charged? In the trial that followed, Dallas prosecutors Ted Steinke and Jane Jackson insisted a crime had been committed. Lawyers for defendants Tom Schalk and Gary Leonard, however, pointed out that none of the materials taken was marked with the words TI—STRICKTLY PRIVATE which were supposed to be on all secret material. What is more, the lab in which the work was done was headed by Dr. George Doddington, a brilliant maverick who often described his lab as “free and open” and argued that major breakthroughs would come only if researcher from different companies and universities shared their knowledge. Even more to the point, VCS did not seem to be using any of the TI material. Schalk insisted to the jury that at no time during his work at TI had he regarded any of this material as secret. Leonard said he merely wanted to keep a historical record of research he had done, and that he had copied a TI computer directory because it contained a list of the people in his Sunday-school class. To all of which Steinke, the prosecutor, replied: “One thing they can’t change. They sunk these programs out without telling anyone.” The Dallas jury, some of its members crying as the verdict was read, found the men guilty. They were sentenced and fined, then placed on probation. Both appealed the ruling and immediately went back to work, trying to make computers understand speech. #RandolphHarris 9 of 20

It is hard to know if industrial espionage is actually on the rise, because, in the words of Brian Hollstein of the American Society for Industrial Security’s committee on the protection of information, “Being a victim of industrial espionage is a lot like getting venereal disease. Many may have it, but nobody wants to talk about it.” On the other hand, more lawsuits are being filed against information thieves and pirates. Hollstein has thought about the value of information more than most. “Many corporations,” he said a few years ago, “really do not understand….They still think in terms mainly of moving around men and materials,” as though still locked into the smokestack economy. “What it amounts to,” he has said, “is a failure to recognize that information has value.” That attitude is changing swiftly. As wars for the control of information heat up, many companies have decided they need more information about the plans, products, and profits of their adversaries. Thus the dramatic rise of what is known as “competitive intelligence.” Smart companies, of course, have always kept an eye cocked at their competitors, but today adversarial knowledge is prime ammunition in the info-wars. Several factors account for the changed attitude. The speed with which any market can now be invaded from outside, the long lead times needed for research (in contrast with shorter product life-cycles), and stiffer competition all have contributed to the much-publicized systematization and professionalization of business spying. He pressure for continual innovation means more resources are flowing into new products, some requiring extremely heavy research. “Designing a chip can take hundreds of labor-years and millions of dollars. Simply copying the competition is both faster and cheaper,” writes John D. Halamka in Espionage in Silicon Valley, explaining why companies now engage in reverse engineering—taking apart a rival product to learn its secret. Xerox reverse-engineers competitive copiers. Companies reverse-engineer services to find out what makes them profitable. #RandolphHarris 10 of 20

Yet another factor promoting the rise of competitive intelligence has been the widespread reorganization of strategic planning. Once a highly centralized activity carried out by staff personnel reporting to top management, planning has been pushed down into the operating units, where it is often carried out by practical line managers geared to rough-and-tumble competition. Knowing what competitors are up to has immediate tactical advantage as well as possible strategic use. All this helps explain why 80 percent of the thousand largest U.S. firms now have their own full-time sleuths and why the Society of Competitor Intelligence Professionals alone claims member from at least three hundred companies in six nations. Their companies keep them busy. Before the Marriott Corporation committed itself to launching the Fairfield Inn chain of low-cost hotels, reports Fortune, it sent a team of snoops into nearly four hundred rival hotels to check on what soaps and towels they supplied, how good the front desk was in dealing with special problems, and whether the sounds of pleasures of the flesh could be heard in adjoining rooms. (The sounds were simulated by one of Marriott’s CI agents while another in the next room listened for them.) Marriott also hired executive headhunters to interview (and pump) the regional managers of rival chains, to find out how much its competitors were paying, what training they offered, and whether their managers were happy. When the Sheller-Globe Corporation, maker of heavy truck cabs, wanted to design a new cab, it systematically called on potential customers, asking them to rank the opposition on seven scales covering gasoline milage, comfort, windshield visibility, ease of steering, seating, accessibility of controls, and durability. The information set targets for the Sheller-Globe design team to beat. #RandolphHarris 11 of 20

 Like real spies, business intelligence agents begin their hunt with a careful scan of “open” sources. They pore over trade journals, newsletters, and the general press for clues to a competing firm’s plans. They read speeches, studying recruiting ads, attend meetings and seminars. They interview former employees, many of whom are eager to talk about their old companies. However, CI snoops—among them, paid outside consultants—have also been known to fly a helicopter over a plant for clues to a competitor’s capacity, to scour trash baskets for discarded memos, and to employ more aggressive measures as well. A look at a rival’s internal phone directory can help one construct a detailed map of its organization, from which it is possible to estimate its budget. One Japanese company sent experts to look at the rail tracks leaving the plant of an American competitor. The thickness of the rust layer—presumably indicating how often or how recently the tracks were used—was a clue to the factory’s production. On occasion, zealous practitioners bug hotel rooms or offices where rivals are negotiating a deal. Even less savory are the U.S.A defense contractors who paid “consultants” to learn in advance how much their competitors were bidding on a Pentagon project, thus permitting them to underbid. In turn, some of the consultants reportedly bribed military personnel to get the facts. Of course, competitive intelligence professionals define CI as the legal pursuit of information. However, a recent Conference Board survey of senior managers suggest that 60 percent of them think anything goes when it comes to corporate spying. The hotting-up of today’s info-wars is part of a growing recognition that knowledge, while central to the new economy, violates all the rules that apply to other resource. It is, for example, inexhaustible. We know how to add vale to a good idea is much more problematic. We lack the new accounting and management theories needed to grapple with super-symbolic realities. #RandolphHarris 12 of 20

We do not yet know how to manage a resource that is salable, but much of which is supplied (often at no charge) by customers themselves. Of, for that matter, either willingly or unwittingly, by competitors. Nor have we yet come to understand how the corporation as a whole engages in knowledge enhancement. Focusing again on the subject of the technology of statistics, I must call attention to the fact that statistics creates an enormous amount of completely useless information, which compounds the always difficult task of locating that which is useful to a culture. This is more than a case of “information-overload.” It is a matter of “information-trivia,” which has the effect of placing all information on an equal level. No one has expressed this misuse of a technology better than the New Yorker magazine cartoonist Mankoff. Showing an attentive man watching television news, Mankoff has the newscaster saying, “A preliminary census report indicates that for the first time in our nation’s history female anthropologists outnumber male professional golfers.” When statistics and computers are joined, volumes of garbage are generated in public discourse. Those who have watched television sports programs will know that Mankoff’s cartoon is, in fact, less of a parody than a documentary. Useless, meaningless statistics flood the attention of the viewer. Sportscasters call them “graphics” in an effort to suggest that the information, graphically presented, is a vital supplement to action of the game. For example: “Since 1984, the Buffalo Bills have won only two games in which they were four points ahead with less than six minutes to play.” Or this: “In only 17 percent of the times he has pitched at Shea Stadium has Dwight Gooden struck out the third and fourth hitters less than three times when they came to bat with more than one runner on base.” What is one to do with this or to make of it?  #RandolphHarris 13 of 20

And yet there seems to be a market for useless information. Those who read USA Today, for example, are offered on the front page of each issue an idiotic statistic of the day that looks something like this: “The four leading states in banana consumption from 1980 through 1989 are Kansas, North Dakota, Wyoming, and Louisiana. Oddly, Nevada, which was ninth in 1989, fell to twenty-sixth last year, which is exactly where it ranks in kiwi consumption.” It is surprising how frequently such blather will serve as the backbone of conversations which are essentially meaningless. I have heard New Yorkers, with a triumphant flourish, offer out-of-towners the statistic that New York City is only eighth in nation in per-capita violent crimes and then decline to go outside because it was past 6.00pm. I do not say, of course, that all such statistical statements are useless. If we learn that one out of every four males between the ages of twenty and thirty has gone to summer camp as a child, and that the nation’s expenditure for the education of male children is 23 percent less than it is for girls, we may have some statistical facts that will help us to see a cause-and-effect relationship, and thereby suggest a course of action. However, statistics, like any other technology, has a tendency to run out of control, to occupy more of our mental space than it warrants, to invade realms of discourse where it can only wreak havoc. When it is out of control, statistics buries in a heap of trivian what is necessary to know. We have talked about Desert Rose Industries. They use assemblers in the simulated molecular World of the Silicon Valley Faire. They are big, slow, computer-controlled things moving molecular tools. #RandolphHarris 14 of 20

With the right instructions and machinery to keep them supplied with molecular tools, these general-purpose assemblers can build almost anything. They are slow, though, and take a lot of energy to run. Some of the building uses special-purpose assembly systems in the molecule-processing style, like the systems in the basement of a simulated molecular factory. The special-purpose systems are all moving belts and rollers, but no arms. This is faster and more efficient, but for quantity orders, cooling requirements limit the speed. It is faster to use larger, prefabricated building blocks. Desert Rose uses these for most of their work, and especially for rush orders like the one Carl set up. Their underground warehouse has room-sized bins containing upward of a thousand tons of the most popular building blocks, things like structural fibers. They are made at plants on the West Coast and shipped here by subway for ready use. Other kinds are made on site using the special-purpose assemblers. Carl’s main room has several cabinet-sized boxes hooked up to the plumbing, each taking in raw materials, running them through this sort of specialized molecular machinery, and pumping out a milky syrup of product. One syrup contains motors, another one contains computers, and another is full of microscopic plug-in light sources. All go into tanks for later use. Now they are being used. The mix for the Red Cross tent job is mostly structural fiber stronger than the old bulletproof-vest materials. Other building blocks also go in, including motors, computers, and dozens of little struts, angle brackets, and doohickies. The mix would look like someone had stirred together the parts from a dozen toy sets, if the parts were big enough to see. In fact, though the largest parts would be no more than blurry dots, if you saw one under a normal optical microscope. #RandolphHarris 15 of 20

The mix also contains block-assemblers, floating free like everything else. These machines are big, about like an office building in our simulation view with the standard setting. Each has several jointed arms, a computer, and several plugs and sockets. These do the actual construction work. To begin the building, pumps pour the mixture into a manufacturing pond. The constant tumbling motions of microscopic things in liquids would be too disorganized for building anything so large as a tent, so the block-assemblers start grabbing their neighbors. Within moments, they have linked up to form a framework spread through the liquid. Now that they are plugged together, they divide up job, and get to work. Instructions pour in from Carl’s desktop computer. The block-assemblers use sticky grippers to pull specific kinds of building blacks out of the liquid. They use their arms to plug them together. For a permanent job, they would be using blocks that bond together chemically and permanently. For these temporary tents, though, the Red Cross design uses a set of standard blocks that are put together with amazingly ordinary fasteners: these blocks have snaps, plugs, and screws, though of course the parts are atomically perfect and the threads on the screws are single helical rows of atoms. The resulting joints weaken the tent’s structure somewhat, but who cares? The basic materials are almost a hundred times stronger than steel, so there is strength to waste if it makes manufacturing more convenient. Fiber segments snap together to make fabrics. Some segments contain motors and computers, linked by fibers that contain power and data cables. Struts snap together with more motors and computers to make the tent’s main structures. Special surfaces are made of special building blocks. #RandolphHarris 16 of 20

From the human perspective, each tent is a lightweight structure that contains most of the conveniences and comforts of an apartment: cooking facilities, a bathroom, beds, windows, air-condition, specially modified to meet the environmental demands of the quake-stricken country. From a builder’s perspective, especially from a nanomachine’s point of view, the tent is just another structure slapped together from a few hundred kinds of prefab parts. In a matter of seconds, each block-assembler has put together a few thousand parts, and its section of the tent is done. In fact, the whole thing is done: many trillions of hands make light work. A crane swings out over the pond and starts plucking out tent packages as fresh mix flows in. Maria’s concern has drawn her back to the plant to see how the building is going. “It’s coming along,” Carl reassures her. “Look, the first batch of tents is out.” It the warehouse, the first pallet is already stacked with five layers of dove-gray “suitcases”: tents dried and packed for transport. Carl grabs a tent by then handle and lugs it out the door. He pushes a tab on the corner labeled “Open,” and it takes over a minute to unfold to a structure a half-dozen paces on a side. The tent is big, and light enough to blow away if it did not cling to the ground so tightly. Maris and Carl tour the tent, testing the appliances, checking the construction of furniture: everything is extremely lightweight compared to the bulk-manufactured goods of the 1990s, tough but almost hollow. #RandolphHarris 17 of 20

Like the other structures, the walls and floors are full of tiny motors and struts controlled by simple computers like the ones used in twentieth-century cars, televisions, and pinball machines. They can unfold and refold. They can also flex to produce sound like a high-quality speaker, or to absorb sound to silence outdoors racket. The whole three-room setup is small and efficient, looking like a cross between a boat cabin and a Japanese business hotel room. Outside, though, it is a little more than a box. Maria shakes her head, knowing full well what architects can do these days when they try to make a building really fit its site. Oh well, she thinks, These won’t be used for long. “Well, that looks pretty good to me,” says Carl with satisfaction. “And I think we’ll be finished in another hour.” Maria is relieved. “I’m glad you had those pools freed up so fast.” By three o’clock, they have shipped three thousand emergency shelters, sending them by subway. Within half an hour, tents are being set up at the disaster site. When we think about global space, of course China comes to mind. While its neighbors try to figure out where they may fit in new Asia they assume will be dominated by China, China no longer sees itself as merely an Asian power. It talks about creating an Asian free-trade sone, but its ambitions—economic and otherwise—are global. It is changing its relations not only to time but to the deep fundamental of space as well. Starting with the reforms in the 1980s and ‘90s, its opening to foreign investment, its entry into the World Trade Organization and its immense expansion of imports and exports, China has, with every passing day, been deepening and diffusing its links to the outside World. And here, too, the twin track strategy is evident. #RandolphHarris 18 of 20

At one level, floods of affordable Chinese good blanket the World, undercutting the makers of Mexican electronic components, Indonesian garments or Colombian copper wire. These are not turned out in China’s industrial-age sweatshops. However, China is also encouraging its high-tech companies to move out and conquer the World. Thus Lenovo, its top PC maker, buys IBM’s PC manufacturing division. Huawei, its big I.T. company, boasts of having ten thousand R&D workers and of maintaining labs in India, Britain, Sweden and he United States of America. It partners with Intel, Microsoft, Siemens and Qualcom to produce communications equipment. China’s expanding spatial reach will soon be more evident in finance as well. The Chinese government has launched “Made in China 2025,” a state-led industrial policy that seeks to make China dominant in global high-tech manufacturing. The program aims to use government subsidies, mobilize state-owned enterprises, and pursue intellectual property acquisition to catch up with—and then surpass—Western technological prowess in advanced industries. For the United States of America and other major industrialized democracies, however, these tactics not only undermine Beijing’s stated adherence to international trade rules but also pose a security risk. Washington argues that the policy relies on discriminatory treatment of foreign investment, forced technology transfers, intellectual property theft, and cyber espionage, practices that have encouraged President Donald J. Trump to levy tariffs on Chinese goods and black several Chinese-back acquisitions of technology firms. Meanwhile, many other countries have tightened their oversight of foreign investment, intensifying debate over how best to respond to China’s behavior. #RandolphHarris 19 of 20

What is China 2025? China plans to thrust itself, big-time, as it will no longer be a region long regarded as America’s backyard—counterbalancing America’s strong presence in China’s backyard, Taiwan. Made in China 2025 is the government’s ten-year plan to update China’s manufacturing base by rapidly developing ten high-tech industries. Chief among these are electric cars and other new energy vehicles, next-generation information technology (IT) and telecommunications, and advanced robotics and artificial intelligence. Other major sectors include agricultural technology; aerospace engineering; new synthetic materials; advanced electrical equipment; emerging bio-medicine; high-end rail infrastructure; and high-tech maritime engineering. However, China’s highly focused drive toward economic expansion should, in theory, keep it too busy for foreign military adventures. Nevertheless, the sectors to the so-called fourth industrial revolution, which refers to the integration of big data, could computing, and other emerging technologies into global manufacturing supply chains. In this regard, Chinese policy makers drew inspiration from the German government’s Industry 4.0 development plan. China is acquiring long-range unmanned aircraft and air-refueling equipment that extended the range of its hair force. It not has nuclear missiles that can reach target all across the United States of America. And it seeks to transform its navy—once designed to protect coastal waters—into a “blue water” nuclear armed fleet capable of ever-more distant operations. China 2025 sets specific targets: by 2025, China aims to achieve 70 percent self-sufficiency in high-tech industries, and by 2049—the hundredth anniversary of the People’s Republic of China—it seeks to dominate position in global markets. China compresses time, it also expands its influence spatially, profoundly altering its traditional economic—and military—relations to these deep fundamentals. #RandolphHarris 20 of 20


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