Randolph Harris Research and Development

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Of All the Sounds Despatched Abroad there is Not a Change to Me

And just what crazy half-illuminated Afterlife are you from! The Great Promise of Unlimited Progress—the promise of domination of nature, of material abundance, of the greatest happiness for the greatest number, and of unimpeded personal freedom—has sustained the hopes and faith of the generations since the beginning of the industrial age. To be sure, our civilization began when the human race started taking active control of nature; but that taking control remained until the advent of the industrial age. Within industrial progress, from the substitution of mechanical and then nuclear energy for animal and human energy to the substitution of the computer for the human mind, we could feel that we were on our way to unlimited production and, hence, unlimited consumption; that technique made us omnipotent; that science made us omniscient. We were on our way to becoming gods, supreme beings who could create a second World, using the natural World only as building blocks for our new creation. Men and women experienced a new sense of freedom; they became masters of their own lives: feudal chains had been broken and one could do what one wished, free of every shackle. Or so people felt. And even though this was true only for the upper and middle classes, their achievement could lead others to the faith that eventually the new freedom could be extended to all members of society, provided industrialization kept up its pace. #RandolphHarris 1 of 9

The achievement of wealth and comfort for all was supposed to result in unrestricted happiness for all. The trinity of unlimited production, absolute freedom, and unrestricted happiness formed the nucleus of a new religion, Progress, and a new Earthly City of Progress was to replace the City of God. It is not at all astonishing that this new religion provided its believers with energy, vitality, and hope. The grandeur of the Great Promise, the marvelous material and intellectual achievement of the industrial age, must be visualized in order to understand the trauma that realization of its failure is producing today. For the industrial age has indeed failed to fulfill its Great Promise, and ever growing numbers of people are becoming aware that: unrestricted satisfaction of all desires is not conducive to well-being, nor is it the way to happiness or even maximum pleasure. The dream of being independent masters of our lives ended when we began awakening to the fat that we have all become cogs in the bureaucratic machine, with our thoughts, feelings, and tastes manipulated by government and industry and the mass communications that they control. Economic progress has remained restricted to the rich nations, and the gap between rich and poor nations has ever widened. Technical progress itself has created ecological dangers and the dangers of nuclear war, either or both of which may put an end to al civilization and possibly to all life. #RandolphHarris 2 of 9

If we consider separately the technical and the social aspects of the work situation, we find that many types of work would be attractive as far as the technical aspect is concerned, provided the social aspects were satisfactory; on the other hand, there are types of work where the technical aspects can by its very nature not be interesting, and yet where the social aspect of the work situation could make it meaningful and attractive.  Starting with the discussion of the first instance, we find that there are many people who would, for example, take keen pleasure in being a locomotive engineer. However, although railroad engineering is one of the highest paid and most respected positions in the working class, with the average salary of nearly $88,680.00, it is, nevertheless, not the fulfillment of the ambition of those who are looking for stability because of the increasing threat to fossil fuels. No doubt, many a business executive would find more pleasure in being a railroad engineer than in their own work if the social and political context of the career were different. Let us take another example: that of the waiter in a restaurant. This job could be an exceedingly attractive one for many people, provided in social and political prestige and political context were different. With mandatory pay increases and mandated healthy insurance, this could affect how much people eat out and tip, so it could decrease the amount people take home in tips. #RandolphHarris 3 of 9

Being a waiter permits of constant interpersonal intercourse, and to people who like food, it gives pleasure to advise others about it, to serve it pleasantly, and so on. Many a person would find much more pleasure in working as a waiter than in sitting in one’s office over meaningless figures and scripts were it not for low appreciation socially of what services are being provided and the income insecurity of this job. Again, many others would love the job of a cab driver, as in New York City they can make $90,766.00 a year, were it not for its negative social and economic aspects now that ride sharing is more readily available and trendy. It is often said that there are certain types of work which nobody would want to perform unless it was part of their family heritage or unless they were forced to do so because of economic necessity due to the health and safety risks involved; the work of a miner is often given as an example. Generally, oil and gas and mining; construction; manufacturing; and wholesale trade, transportation, warehousing and waste handling are fairly high paid careers. Compensation in these sectors average $58,000.00 a year; in oil and gas, pay tops $100,000.00. However, considering the diversity of people, and of their conscious and unconscious fantasies, it seems that there would be a considerable number of people for whom working within the Earth, and extracting its riches would have a great attraction were it not for the social, political, and financial disadvantages of this work. #RandolphHarris 4 of 9

When you take into consideration that you are risking your life and healthy and there is growing instability in the field, due to the political climate, one is being asked to potentially give up a lot. There is hardly any kind of work which would not attract certain types of personalities, provided it were freed from the negative aspects, socially, politically, and economically. However, even granted that the foregoing considerations are correct, it is undoubtedly true that much of the highly routinized work which is required by mechanized industry cannot in itself be a source of pleasure or satisfaction. Here again the differentiation between the technical and the social aspects of the work proves to be important. While the technical aspects may indeed by uninteresting, the total work situation may offer a good deal of satisfaction. Here is another example which serve to illustrate this point. Let us compare a housewife or househusband who takes care of the house and does the cooking, with a housekeeper who is paid for doing exactly the same work. Both for the housewife or househusband and the housekeeper, the work in its technical aspects is the same, and it is not particularly interesting. Yet it will have an entirely different meaning and satisfaction for the two, provided we think of a woman or a man with a happy relationship to their partner and children, and of an average housekeeper, who has no sentimental attachment to his or her employer. To the former, the work will not be drudgery, while to the latter it will be exactly that, and the only reason for doing it is that one needs the money paid for it. #RandolphHarris 5 of 9

The reason for this difference is perception between the housekeeper and the housewife or househusband is obvious: while the work is the same in its technical aspects, the work situation is entirely different. For the housewife or househusband, it is part of one’s total relationship to one’s partner and children, and in this sense one’s work is meaningful. The housekeeper does not participate in the satisfaction of this social aspect of the work. An error does not become a mistake until you refuse to correct it.  Clearly we can see that learning and comprehension is a process that can be accomplished through instruction, it can also be brought about through other methods. How important is learning? It occurs all the time, whether we are aware of it or not. In addition to physiological and maturational development, it is the process through which we change and become the people that we are. The first step in overcoming problems is to understand their causes. What has been happening in our Western World that individuals and nations should be buffeted about by so much confusion and bewilderment? To dare to face the situation, we have to become superhuman, but the superhuman with the superhuman power has not risen to the level of superhuman reason. To the degree which one’s power grows one becomes more and more a poor mortal. #RandolphHarris 6 of 9

It must shake up our conscience that we become all the more inhuman the more we grow into superhumans. The values and goals of Western society are in a state of transition. What, specifically, are the values that we have lost? One of the two central beliefs in the modern period since the Renaissance has been in the value of individual competition. The conviction was that the more a mortal worked to further one’s own economic self-interest and to become wealthy, the more one would contribute to the material progress of the community. This famous laissez-faire theory in economics worked well for several centuries. It was true through the early and growing stages of modern industrialism and capitalism that for you or me to strive to become rich by increasing our trade or building a bigger factory would eventually mean the production of more material goods for the community. The pursuit of competitive enterprise was a magnificent and courageous idea in its heyday. However, in modern times considerable changes have occurred. In our preset day of giant business and monopoly capitalism how many people can become successful as individual competitors? There are very few groups left who, like doctors and psychotherapists and some farmers, still have the luxury of being their own economic bosses—and even they are subject to the rise and fall of prices and the fluctuating market like everyone else. #RandolphHarris 7 of 9

The vast majority of working people and capitalists alike, professional people or business people, must fit into broad groups such as labor unions or big industries or university systems, or they would not survive economically at all. We have been taught to strive to get ahead of the next mortal, but actually today one’s success depends much more on how well one learns to work with one’s fellow workers. I have just read that even the individual crook cannot make out very well on one’s own these days: one has to join a racket! Looking at the fake news media and how they now collaborate with private and even government institutions, we can see it is true. We do not mean that something is wrong with individual effort and initiative as such. Indeed, the chief argument is that unique powers and initiative of each individual must be rediscovered, and used as a basis for work which contributes to the good of the community, rather than melted down in the collectivist pot of conformity. Scientific and other advances have made us much more closely interdependent in our nation as well as in our World, and individualism must become a different thing from each person for oneself and the devil take the hindmost. If you or I had a farm to carve out of the frontier forest two centuries ago, or possessed a little capital with which to start a new business last century, the philosophy of each person for oneself would have brought out the best in us and resulted in the best for the community. #RandolphHarris 8 of 9

This brings us to the relation between the soul and the special problem of modern Western mortals, namely, the tendency to get absorbed in the herd, lost in das Mann. The soul is an anonymity. The impersonal soul makes us all anonymous—nature draws no distinction between me and any illiterate peasant who also is its tool in its relentless drive toward self-increase, who copulates and begets offspring to perpetuate the race, and who can experience rage to keep oneself alive long enough to serve as nature’s procreator. Speaking psychoanalytically, this is the soul in the form of the is. In our bourgeois, industrialized society, mortal’s most effective way of evading the soul is by losing oneself in the herd. Right now God is breathing on your dreams. He is going to multiply what you have. He will multiply your talent, your resources, and your creativity. This is not the time to shrink back in fear. This is the time to move forward in faith. Get up every morning knowing you are anointed. You are equipped. You are empowered. You have everything you need to fulfill your destiny. However many blessings we expect from God, his infinite liberality will always exceed all our wishes and our thoughts. God is always trying to give good things to us, but our hands are too full to receive them. I want to know God’s thoughts. The rest are details. #RandolphHarris 9 of 9


Our Common Concern is the Very Destiny of the Human Race and the Unshaken Heart of Well-Rounded Truth

Our senses do not always play fair, or so it often seems. Sometimes the strangest phenomena occur which cause us to doubt our sanity or the effectiveness of our sensory apparatus. When we consider how intricate our nervous system is and how complex our sensory equipment, it is small wonder that there is not a lot more confusion than there actually is. We have you in our World now, and I must say you have a divine house here, and I so admire the paintings which have only just come from Paris, you and your friends are so very cleaver, and the furniture, there is so much of it, yes, it seems you have delicately places things in every nook and cranny, yet who could have asked for anything finer? Incoherence is the result of the present disintegrative processes in education. Thus, we must recognize that natural and humanmade ecological systems require as much study as isolated particles and elementary reactions. For there is a basic correlation of elements in nature as in mortals which cannot be separated, which compose each other and alter each other mutually. Thus we hope to widen appropriately our conceptual framework of reference. For our epistemological problem consists in finding the proper balance between our lack of an all-embracing principle relevant to our way of evaluating life and in our power to express ourselves in a logically consistent manner. All of this is sharply expressed in the relation of faith and doubt. #RandolphHarris 1 of 18

If faith is understood as belief that something is true, doubt is incompatible with the act of faith. If faith is understood as being ultimately concerned, doubt is a necessary element in it. It is a consequence of the risk of faith. Our experience challenges us to recognize a totality richer and far more complex than the average observer could have suspected—a totality which compels one to think in ways which the logical dichotomies denies. We are summoned to revise fundamentally our ordinary ways of conceiving experience, and thus, by expanding our vision and by accepting these forms of thought which also include nonexclusive categories, then mind is then able to grasp what it was incapable of grasping or accepting before. The doubt which is implicit in faith is not a doubt about fact or conclusions. It is not the same doubt which is the lifeblood of scientific research. Even the most orthodox theologian does not deny the right methodological doubt in matter of empirical inquiry or logical deduction. A scientist who would say that a scientific theory is beyond doubt would at that moment cease to be scientific. One may believe that the theory can be trusted for all practical purposes. Without such belief no technical application of a theory would be possible. One could attribute to this a kind of belief pragmatic certainty sufficient for action. Doubt in this case points to the preliminary character of the underlying theory. #RandolphHarris 2 of 18

We initially experience the soul as a blind push, driving us toward the assertion of ourselves. This blind push is original in two senses: first, it is the original way the infant experiences the soul, but it is also the way the soul instantaneously strikes each of us regardless of how old we are. Nature operates out of necessity; there is no alternative in nature, no will, no freedom, no choice as there is for mortals. Mortals must have convictions and values to live for, and this also is recognized and accepted by those scientists who are at the same time philosophers. For they then realize that duty and devotion to our task, be it a task of acting or of understanding, will become weaker and rarer unless guidance is sought in a metaphysics that transcends our historical and scientific views in a religion that transcends and yet pervades the work we are carrying on in the light of day. Our blind urges become more and more sieved through the context of what gets us what we wish; we begin the long process of learning the gradual acculturation of soul urges. We are born into a social group, and would not survive more than a few hours without this community—no longer than Oedipus would have lasted out on the hillside if he had not been found by the shepherd. #RandolphHarris 3 of 18

The skeptical doubt is an attitude toward all the beliefs of mortals, from sense experiences to religious creeds. It is more an attitude than an assertion. For as an assertion it would conflict with itself. Even the assertion that there is no possible truth for mortals would be judged by the skeptical principle and could not stand as an assertion. Genuine skeptical doubt does not use the form of an assertion. It is an attitude of actually rejecting any certainty. Therefore, it cannot be refuted logically. It does not transform its attitude into a proposition. Such an attitude necessarily leads either to despair or cynicism, or both alternately. And often, if this alternative becomes intolerable, it leads to indifference and the attempt to develop an attitude of complete unconcern. However, since mortals are those beings who are essentially concerned about their being, such an escape finally breaks down. This is the dynamics of skeptical doubt. It has an awakening and liberating function, but it also can prevent the development of a centered personality. For personality is not possible without faith. The despair about truth by the skeptic shows that truth is still one’s infinite passion. The cynical superiority over every concrete truth shows that truth is still taken seriously and that the impact of the question of an ultimate concern is strongly felt. The skeptic, so long as one is a serious skeptic, is not without faith, even thought it has no concrete content. #RandolphHarris 4 of 18

For the nature of knowledge, whether scientific or ontological, consists in reconciling meaning and being. And being signifies nothing other than the actualization of potentiality, self-realization which keeps in tune wit the transformation. This leads to experience in terms of the individual; and to organization and patterning in terms of the Universe. Thus organism and World actualize themselves simultaneously. And so we may understand that organism is being enduring in time, in fact in eternal time, nor with birth, nor does it end with death. Energy and matter in whatever form they may manifest themselves are transtemporal and transspatial and are therefore metaphysical. Mortals as mortal is summoned to know what is right and what is wrong, for emptied of such knowledge one is unable to decide what is better or what is worse. The doubt which is implicit in every act of faith is neither the methodological nor the skeptical doubt. It is the doubt which accompanies every risk. It is not the permanent doubt of the scientists, and it is not the transitory doubt of the skeptic, but it is the doubt of one who is ultimately concerned about a concrete content. One could call it the existential doubt, in contrast to the methodological and the skeptical doubt. It does not question whether a special proposition is true or false. It does not reject every concrete truth, but it is aware of the element of insecurity in every existential truth. #RandolphHarris 5 of 18

At the same time, the doubt which is implied in faith accepts this insecurity and takes it into itself in an act of courage. Faith includes courage. Therefore, it can include the doubt about itself. Certainly faith and courage are not identical. Faith has other elements besides courage and courage has other function beyond affirming faith. This dynamic concept of faith seems to give no place to that restful affirmative confidence which we find in the documents of all great religions, including Christianity. However, this is not the case. The self-motivated perception of faith is the result of a conceptual analysis, both of the subjective and of the objective side of faith. It is by no means the description of an always actualized state of mind. An analysis of structure is not the description of a state of things. The confusion of these two is a source of many misunderstandings and errors in all realm of life. An example, taken from the current discussion of anxiety, is typical of confusion. The description of anxiety as the awareness of one’s finitude is sometimes criticized as untrue from the of view of the ordinary state of the mind. #RandolphHarris 6 of 18

Anxiety, one says, appears under special conditions but it not an ever-present implication of mortal’s finitude. Certainly anxiety as an acute experience appears under definite conditions. However, the underlying structure of finite life is the universal condition which makes the appearance of anxiety under special conditions possible. In the same way doubt is not a permanent experience within the act of faith. However, it I always present as an element in the structure of faith. This is the difference between fait and immediate evidence either of perceptual or of logical character. There is no faith without an intrinsic “in spite of” and the courageous affirmation of oneself in the state of ultimate concern. This intrinsic element of doubt breaks into the open under special individual and social conditions. If doubt appears, it should not be considered as the negation of faith, but as an element which was always and will always be present in the act of faith. Existential doubt and faith are poles of the same reality, the state of ultimate concern. The insight into this structure of faith and doubt is of tremendous practical importance. Many Christians, as well as members of other religious groups, feel anxiety, guilt and despair about what they call loss of faith. However serious doubt is confirmation of faith, it indicates the seriousness of the concern its unconditional character. #RandolphHarris 7 of 18

This also refers to those who as future or present ministers of a church experience not only scientific doubt about doctrinal statements—that is as necessary and perpetual as theology is a perpetual need—but also existential doubt about the message of their church, for instance, that Jesus can be called the Christ. The criterion according to which they should judge themselves is the seriousness and ultimacy of their concern about the content of both their fait and their doubt. So, it seems all people question their faith from time to time, and that is nature, and even people who do not have or are just establishing their faith have an inclination to believe in God and Christ, but the bottom line is that they know they should be good people, even if they do not recognize God. A belief in God or not believing in God is not a key to sin and think it is all good because you can see something much greater than humans created this World and at sometime, we are going to have to answer for the things we have done. Thus, mortals have discovered their own nature, and with this self-knowledge one has left the state of nonage and entered adulthood. For one is the only being who is able to say “no” to life but “yes” and to make for oneself a life that is human. In this decision lie our burden and our greatness. For the power of life or death lies not only in the tongue but in mortal’s recently acquired ability to destroy or to create life itself, and therefore one is faced with unlimited and unprecedented choices for good and evil that dominate out time. #RandolphHarris 8 of 18

Our common concern is the very destiny of the human race. For mortals have now intervened in the process of evolution, a power not given to the pre-Socratics, nor to Aristotle, nor to the Prophets in the East or the West, nor to Copernicus, not to Luther, Descartes, or Machiavelli. Judgments of value must henceforth direct technological change, for without such values mortals are divested of one’s humanity and of one’s need to collaborate with the very fabric of the Universe in order to bestow meaning, purpose, and dignity upon one’s existence. No time must be lost since the wavelength of chance is now shorter than the life-span of mortals. In spite of the infinite obligation of mortals and in spite of their finite power, in spire of the intransigence of nationalisms, and in spite of the homelessness of moral passions rendered ineffectual by the technological outlook, beneath the apparent turmoil and upheaval of the present, and out of the transformations of this dynamic period with the unfolding of a World-consciousness, the purpose of humanity is to help quicken the unshaken heart of well-rounded truth and interpret the significant elements of the World Age now taking shape out of the core of that undimmed continuity of the creative process which restores mortals to humankind while deepening and enhancing one’s communion and one’s symbiotic relationship with the  Universe. #RandolphHarris 9 of 18

Regardless of how loud we protest, we need our communities around us. The soul occurs within the context of this social group. To what extent will it be used against them, to attack the, or force them to bend to our needs and desires; and to what extent and wen will it be used as a cooperative assertion? Adults retain the propensity to experience the soul as a blind push, as sheer self-assertion. In all sorts of demonstrations, it is necessary to stir the mob spirit before the act can be done. We experience security in the mob, a comfortable feeling of being completely protected. We surrender our individual consciousness to the group mind; we feel as thought we were in the ecstatic state of trance under hypnosis. No matter how civilized an individual may pride oneself on being, or how much one may deplore violence on the part of others, one must still admit that one is capable of this—or, if one is not, something important in one’s character has been suffocated. The attractiveness of giving one’s self over to the mob lies in the excitement without individual consciousness—no more alienation, no sense of isolation, and none of that fatiguing burden of personal responsibility. All of this is taken over by the group mind, a fictitious phrase which stands for the lowest common denominator. This is what constitutes the attraction—indeed, at times the horrendous joy—of war and of mass demonstrations. #RandolphHarris 10 of 18

They assume from us in our individual personal responsibility for the soul; and the fact that my sentence begins with “they” indicates how much we must assign the action to anonymous figures. In society like our, which represses the soul, these states are welcomed for the primitive security they give. Prejudice is a result of disrespect for our fellow beings. We cannot participate in attitudes of prejudice without distancing ourselves from others. True respect, then, comes as we develop our ability to love our brothers and sisters as ourselves. Gossip, another everyday form of disrespect, is incompatible with love. What we say about people in their absence should be what we would say to them, with love, if they were present. Feeling empathy for others is a symptom of respectful behavior, while feeling unsympathetic is a symptom of disrespectful acts. Respect is also synonymous with care and concern. We respect those we care about. Sometimes we excuse our disrespect, even for people we care about, by holding against them their lack of caring or concern for us. “And ye will not have a mind to injure one another, but to live peaceably, and to render to every person according to that which one is due,” reports Mosiah 4.13. While there are many examples of disrespect in the media, there are so good example, like the teach who helped buy one of her students brand new car and get him a paid internship because he was working three job. #RandolphHarris 11 of 18

Teach your children to respect their neighbors, church leaders, and teachers. The act of faith, like every act in a mortal’s spiritual life, is dependent on language and therefore on community. For only in the community of spiritual beings is language alive. Without language there is no act of faith, no religious experience! This refers to language generally and to the special language in every function of mortal’s spiritual life. The religious language, the language of symbol and myth, is created in the community of the believers and cannot be fully understood outside this community. However, within it, the religious language enables the act of faith to have a concrete content. Faith needs its language, as does every act of the personality; without language it would be blind, not directed toward a content, not conscious of itself. This is the reason for the predominant significance of the community of faith. Only as a member of such a community (even if in isolation or expulsion) can mortals have a content for one’s ultimate concern. Only in a community of language can mortals actualize their faith. If there is no faith without community of faith, is it not necessary that the community formulate the content of its faith in a definite way as a creedal statement and demand that every member of the community accept it? Certainly this is the way in which the creeds came into existence, and is the reason for the doctrines and legal fixation. #RandolphHarris 12 of 18

However, we cannot force every member of the community to accept out beliefs. This would not explain the tremendous power of these expressions of the communal faith over groups and individual generation to generation. Nor does it explain the fanaticism with which doubts and deviations were suppressed, not only by external power but even more by the mechanism of inner suppression. These mechanisms had been planted into the individual mind and were most effective even without pressure from the outside. In order to understand these facts we must remember that faith as the state of ultimate concern includes total surrender to the content of this concern in a centered act of the personality. This means that the existence of the personality in the ultimate sense is at stake. Idolatrous concern and devotion may destroy the center of the personality. If, as in the Christian Church, in centuries of strife the content of the communal faith has been defended against such intrusions, it is understandable that every deviation from these formulations is considered destructive for the soul of the Christian. One is thought to have fallen under demonic influences. Ecclesiastical punishments are attempts to save one from demonic self-destruction. In these measures the concern which is the content of faith is take absolutely seriously. It is a matter of eternal life and death. #RandolphHarris 13 of 18

However, it is not only the individual for who subjection to the established creed is of decisive importance. It is also the community of faith as such which must be protected against the distorting influences of individuals. The Church excludes from its community those who are though to have denied the foundations of the Church. This is the meaning of the concept of heresy. The heretic is not one who has erroneous beliefs (tis is a possible implication of heresy, but not its essence), but the heretic is one who has turned away from the true to a false, idolatrous concern. Therefore, one may influence others in the same direction, destroy them, and undermine the community. If the civil authorities consider the Church as the basis of the conformity and cultural substance without which a society cannot live, they persecute the heretic as a civil criminal and use means of indoctrination and external pressure by which they try to keep the unity of the religio-political realm. However, if this point is reached, the reaction of mortal’s spiritual autonomy begins to work and, if victorious, removes not only the political enforcement of a creedal system but the creedal system itself—and beyond this, often faith itself. However, this proves to be impossible. It can be and has always been done only through the power of another ultimate concern. #RandolphHarris 14 of 18

Faith stands against faith in the World historical struggles between the Church and its liberal critics. Even the faith of the liberal needs expression and some communal formulations, and it needs to be defended against authoritarian attacks. Even more: the ultimate concern of the liberal needs concrete contents, as does every ultimate concern. One also lives in institutions of a definite historical character. One, too, has a special language and uses special symbols. One’s faith in freedom as an element in the concreteness of a total situation. If one undercuts this concreteness in the name of freedom, one produces a vacuum into which antiliberal forces easily enter. Only creative faith can resist the onslaught of destructive faith. Only the concern with what is truly ultimate can stand against idolatrous concerns. How is a community of faith possible without suppression of the autonomy of mortal’s spiritual life? That is based on the relation of the civil authorities to the communities of faith. Even if a society is practically identical with a community of faith and the actual life of the group is determined by the spiritual substance of a church, the civil authorities should as such remain neutral and risk the rise of dissident forms of faith. If they try to enforce spiritual conformity, and are successful, they have removed the risk of courage which belongs to the act of faith. #RandolphHarris 15 of 18

They have transformed faith into a behavior pattern which does not admit alternatives, and which loses its character of ultimacy even if the fulfillment of the religious duties is done with supreme concern. However, such a situation has become rare in our period. In most societies the evil authorities have to deal with different communities of faith, unable to enforce the one or the other in all members of the society. In this case the spiritual substance of the social group is determined by the common denominator of the different groups and their common tradition. This denominator may be more secular or more religious. In any case it is an outgrowth of faith, and its expression—as in the American Constitution—is affirmed in an attitude which sometimes has the unconditional character of an ultimate concern, but more often the conditional character of a preliminary concern of highest degree. Just for this reason the civil authorities should not try to prohibit the expression of doubt about such a basic law, although they must enforce the legal consequences of it. People may have to struggle within themselves about their subjection; but after they have made the decision, no doubt can be admitted by them about the infallible statements of the authorities. #RandolphHarris 16 of 18

This faith has become static, a nonquestioning surrender not only to the ultimate, which is affirmed in the act of faith, but also to its concrete elements as formulated by the religious authorities. In this way something preliminary and conditional—the human interpretation of the content of faith from the Biblical writers to the present—receives ultimacy and is elevated above the risk of doubt. The fight against the idolatrous implications of this kind of static faith was waged first by Protestantism and then, when Protestantism itself became static, by Enlightenment. This protect, however insufficient its expression, aimed originally at a dynamic faith and not at the negation of faith, not even at the negation of creedal formulations. So we stand again before the question: How can a faith which has doubt as an element within itself be untied with creedal statements of the community of faith? Creedal expressions of the ultimate concern of the community must include their own criticism. It must become obvious in all of them—by they liturgical, doctrinal or ethical expressions of the faith of the community—that they are not ultimate. Rather, their function is to point to the ultimate which is being all of them. This is what I call the “Protestant principle,” the critical element in the expression of the community of faith and consequently the element of doubt in the fact of faith. #RandolphHarris 17 of 18

Neither the doubt nor the critical element is always actual, but both most always be possible within the circle of faith. From the Christian point of view, one would say that the Church with all its doctrines and institutions and authorities stands under the Cross, if the Cross is understood as the divine judgment over mortal’s religious life, and even over Christianity, though it has accepted the sign of the Cross. In this way the dynamic faith which we first have described in personal terms is applied to the community of faith. Certainly, the life of a community of faith is a continuous risk, if faith itself is understood as a risk. However, this is the character of dynamic faith, and the consequences of the Protestant principle. Faith is a principle of action and power. Whenever we work toward a worthy goal, we exercise faith. We show our hope for something that we cannot see. We can exercise faith in Christ when we have an assurance that he exists, a correct idea of the Lord’s character, and a knowledge that we are striving to live according to his will. Having faith in Jesus Christ means relying completely on him—trusting his infinite power, intelligence, and love. It includes believing his teaching. It means believing that even though we do not understand all things. Because the Lord has experienced all our pains, afflictions, and infirmaries, he knows how to help us rise above all our daily difficulties. Faith is much more than passive belief. We express our faith through action—by the way we live. Our faith an lead us to good works. #RandolphHarris 18 of 18


He Waited with an Empathetic Face with Patient Celibate Alertness—Parting is All We Know of Heaven


Who missed the deep silence of so many past centuries? Who missed the deep darkness of the long ago pre-electric nights? Not me. We can no longer postpone the challenging question: How does one know that among that bedlam of voices which beset us all, one is really hearing one’s soul? Inner voices—experienced as actual or metaphorical ones—are notoriously untrustworthy; they can tell one anything. Many people hear voices, but there are few Joans Arc. The most important criterion which saves the soul from anarchy is dialogue. Almost every contemporary psychotherapist gains in importance and comes much more than a mere technique for dialogue implies that mortals exist in relationship. The fact that dialogue is possible at all—that it is possible, in favorable circumstances, for us to understand each other, stand where the other is standing—is, in itself, a remarkable point. Communication presupposes community which, in turn, means a communion between the consciousness of the persons in the community. This is a meaningful interchange which is not dependent upon the individual’s mere whim but is a built-in aspect of the structure of human intercourse. Human life is life in dialogue; we can know the self only in dialogue. As we move into times of accelerating change and deepening uncertainty, we need to get smart about how to talk to one another. #RandolphHarris 1 of 17

We need to be able to overcome differences, find common ground, build meaning and purpose, be able to think together as groups, as teams, as committees, as communities and as citizens.  Consensual validation shows the enteral importance of dialogue, and has the merit of emphasizing the experiential side rather than mere discourse. The word logos (meaningful structure of reality) is the anchor of this term, dia-logos. If we can talk about the soul meaningfully, we already are in the process of integrating it into the structure of our lives. We find through dialogue the structure of experience and then each mortal is not cast adrift on one’s own. Ideas and reminiscence has to only be awakened and brought out. Understanding is possible, specially by the structure of language, and more generally by the structure of human relationships. Truth exists in the individual as well as in universal structures, for we ourselves participate in these structures. Logos speaks not only in objective laws but subjectively, through the individual person. The integrated soul pushes the person toward some universal structure of meaning, as shown in dialogue. To be guided by your own soul requires a fundamental humility. Your own convictions will always have an element of blindness and self-distortion; the one ultimate illusion is to operate under the conceit that you are free from illusion. #RandolphHarris 2 of 17

Indeed, some scholars believe the original Greek phrase “know thyself” means “Know that thou art only a mortal.” This implies that what as to be surrendered or worked through, as we say psychoanalytically, is the tendency arising in human infancy to play god and the omnipresent demand to be treated as through we were god. Dr. Freud’s concepts of resistance and repression are descriptions of the profound difficulty of knowing thyself. The concept of bad faith and good faith is also an illustration—the dilemma of honesty with one’s self lying in the fact that there is always some element of self-distortion in our acts and beliefs. The mortal who thinks one is in good faith is at that point in bad faith, and the only way to be in good faith is to know that you are in bad faith, for instance, to know that there is some element of distortion and illusion in your perception. The moral problem is not simply a matter of believing in one’s convictions and acting on them, for people’s convictions can be as dominating and destructive, if not more so, than mere pragmatic positions. The moral problem is the relentless endeavor to find one’s own convictions and at the same time to admit that there will always ben in them an element of self-aggrandizement and distortion. Here is where the principle of humility is essential, for psychotherapists and for any moral citizen. #RandolphHarris 3 of 17

The shift from independents (people who own their own businesses) to employees is in itself conducive to decreasing work satisfaction for the reason. The employed person, more than the independent one, works in an alienated position. Whether one is paid a lower or a higher salary, one is an accessory to the organization rather than a human being doing something for one’s self. There is one factor, however, which could mitigate the alienation of work, and that is the skill required in its performance. However, here too, development moves in the direction of decreasing skill requirements, and hence increasing alienation. While the managerial or professional groups have at least considerable interest in achieving something more or less personal, the vast majority sell their physical, or an exceedingly small part their intellectual capacity to an employer to be used for purposes of profit in which they have no share, for things in which they have no interest, with the only purpose of making a living, and for some chance to satisfy their consumer’s greed. Dissatisfaction, apathy, boredom, lack of joy and happiness, a sense of futility and a vague feeling that life is meaningless, are the unavoidable results of this situation. This socially patterned syndrome of pathology may not be in the awareness of people; it may be covered by a frantic flight into escape activities, or by a craving for more money, power, prestige. #RandolphHarris 4 of 17

However, the weight of the latter motivations is so great only because the alienated person cannot help seeking for such compensation for one’s inner vacuity, not because these desires are the natural or most important incentives for work. Is there any empirical evidence that most people today are not satisfied with their work? It is evident from psychoanalytic experience that the sense of unhappiness and dissatisfaction can be deeply repressed; a person may consciously feel satisfied and only one’s dreams, psychosomatic illness, insomnia, and many other symptoms may be expressive of the underlying happiness. The tendency to repress dissatisfaction and unhappiness is strongly supported by the widespread feeling that not to be satisfied means to be a failure, unsuccessful, etcetera. (Thus, for instance, the number of people who consciously think they are happily married, and express this belief sincerely in answer to a questionnaire is by far greater than the number of those who are really happy in their marriage.) However, even the data on conscious job satisfaction are rather telling. In a study about job satisfaction on a national scale, satisfaction with and employment of their job was expressed by 85 percent of the professionals and executives, by 64 percent of the white-collar people, by 41 percent of the factory workers. #RandolphHarris 5 of 17

In another study, we find a similar picture: 86 percent of the professionals, 74 percent of the managerial, 42 percent of the commercial employees, 56 percent of the skilled, and 48 percent of the semi-skilled workers expressed satisfaction. We find in these figures a significant discrepancy between professionals and executives on the one hand, workers and clerks on the other. Among the former only a minority is dissatisfied—among the latter, more than half. Regarding the total population, this means, roughly, that over half of the total employed population is consciously dissatisfied with their work, and do not enjoy it. If we consider the unconscious dissatisfaction, the percentage would be considerably higher. Taking the 85 percent of satisfied professionals and executives, we would have to examine how many of them suffer from psychologically determined high blood pressure, ulcers, insomnia, nervous tension and fatigue. Although there are no exact data on this, there can be no doubt that, considering these symptoms, the number of really satisfied people who enjoy their work would be much smaller than the above figures indicate. As far as factory workers and office clerks are concerned, even the percentage of consciously dissatisfied people is remarkably high. Undoubtedly the number of unconsciously dissatisfied workers and clerks is much higher. #RandolphHarris 6 of 17

This is indicated by several studies which show that neurosis and psychogenic illness are the main reasons for absenteeism (the estimates for the presence of neurotic symptoms among factory workers go up to about 50 percent). Fatigue and high labor turnover are other symptoms of dissatisfaction and resentment. The most important symptom from the economic standpoint, hence the best studied one, is the wide speared tendency of factory workers, not to give their best to the work, or work restriction as it is often called. In a recent poll conducted, 49 percent of all the manual workers questioned answered that when a person takes a job in a factory he or she should turn out as much as one can, but 41 percent answered that one should not do one’s best, but only turn out the average among. We see that there is a great deal of conscious, and even more unconscious dissatisfaction with the kind of work which our industrial society offers most of its members. One tries to counteract their dissatisfaction by a mixture of monetary and prestige incentives, and undoubtedly these incentives produce considerable eagerness to work, especially in the middle and higher echelons of the business hierarchy. However, it is one thing that these incentives make people work, and it is quite another thing whether the mode of this work is conducive to mental health and happiness. #RandolphHarris 7 of 17

The discussion on motivation of work usually considers only the first problem, namely whether this or that incentive increases the economic productivity of the worker, but not the second, that of one’s human productivity. One ignores the fact that there are many incentives which can make a person do something, but which at the same time are detrimental to one’s personality. A person can work hard out of fear, or out of an inner sense of guilt; psychopathology gives us many examples of neurotic motives leading to overactivity as well as to inactivity. Most of us assume that the kind of work current in our society, namely, alienated work, is the only kind there is, hence that aversion to work is natural, hence that money and prestige and power are the only incentives for work. If we would use our imagination just a little bit, we could collect a good deal of evidence from our own lives, from observing children, from a number of situations which we can hardly fail to encounter, to convince us that we long to spend our energy on something meaningful, that we feel refreshed if we can do so, and that we are quite willing to accept rational authority if what we are doing makes sense. However, even if this is true, most people object, what help is truth to us? #RandolphHarris 8 of 17

Industrial, mechanized work cannot, by its very nature, be meaningful; it cannot give any pleasure of satisfaction—there are no ways of changing these facts, unless we want to give up out technical achievements. Does the proposed way of acting make for the integration of the individual as a totality? Does it—at least potentially—make for the expansion of interpersonal meaning in one’s life? And in the lives of those persons significant to the individual? Would this way of acting, if adopted by other people (in principle, all of humankind), make for the increase of interpersonal meaning? It may help to see what happens when the soul is not experienced in dialogue. Examples of this can be seen in every nation at war. Unfaced within one’s self and one’s group, the soul is projected on the enemy. It is no longer seen as a nation which has its own security and power needs, but as the Evil One, the personification of the devil; one’s own soul tendencies are placed on it. The enemy becomes the carrier of the elements we repress in ourselves. We fight our adversaries little realizing that we are fighting our own selves, denied though it be. This projection requires assertion of self-righteousness on the part of the in group, which is what makes it almost impossible to negotiate: to negotiate with the devil is to admit him as an equal; you have, in principle then, already given in to him. This is exactly why the democrats do not want to negotiate with president Trump, but a nation divided amongst itself will fall. #RandolphHaris 9 of 17

The next step in war psychology is that imagination and vision are blocked. There comes out of the capital—of whatever nation—cliché after cliché, each one thinner than its predecessor, which people do not believe on one level but join together in a conspiracy to believe one another. They become rigid in their soul obsession. It is impossible for them even to conceive of any solutions. This process makes the soul impersonal again. It removes the whole area from our having control over it; the soul regresses to what it originally was—a blind, unconscious push unintegrated with consciousness. We now become not only nature’s tools but her blind tools. This is abetted by the vicious-circle mechanism, presented in nations as well as neurotics. We do not learn from experience; we make decision patently against our own interest, and wen they do not work we self-destructively make them all over again. Shrunken in vision and sensitivity, we move monolithically, straight ahead, like the ancient dinosaur who could not learn, blond even to out own dinosaurian movements. Indeed, anxiety may take all forms and intensities, for it is the human being’s basic reaction to a danger to his or her existence, or to some value one identifies with one’s existence. Fear is a threat to one side of the self—if a child is in a fight, one may get hurt, but that hurt would not be a threat to one’s existence; or the university student may be somewhat scared by a midterm, but one knows that the sky will not fall in if one does not pass it. #RandolphHarris 10 of 17

However, as soon as the threat becomes great enough to involve the total self, one then has the experience of anxiety. Anxiety strikes us at the very core of ourselves: it is what we feel when our existence as selves is threatened. It is the quality of an experience which makes it anxiety rather than the quantity. One may feel only a slight gnawing away in one’s stomach when a supposed friend passes one on the street and does not speak, but though the threat is not intense, the fact that the gnawing continues, and that one is confused and searches around for an explanation of why the friend snubbed one, shows the threat is to something basic in us. In its full-blown intensity, anxiety is the most painful emotion to which the human being is heir. Present dangers are less than future imaginings, and people have been known to leap out of a lifeboat and drown rather than face the greater agony of continual doubt and uncertainty, never knowing whether they will be rescued or not. The threat of death is the most common symbol for anxiety, but most of us in our civilized era do not find ourselves looking into the barrel of a crazed stalker’s gun nor in other ways specifically threatened with death very often. The great bulk of our anxiety comes when some value we hold essential to our existence as selves is threatened. #RandolphHarris 11 of 17

Tom, the man who will go down in scientific history because he had a hole in his stomach through which the doctors at New York Hospital could observe his psychosomatic reactions in times of anxiety, fear and other stress, gave a beautiful illustration of this. In a period when Tom was anxious about whether he could keep his job at the hospital or would have to go one relief, he exclaimed, “If I could not support my family, I would as soon jump off the dock.” That is, if the value of being a self-respecting wage-earner were threatened, Tom, like the salesman Willie Loman and countless other people in our society, would feel one no longer existed as a self, and might as well be dead. However, when God put a dream in your heart, he also set a date for completion, so never give up. Nonetheless, this illustrates what is true in one way or another for practically all human beings. Certain values, be they success or the love of someone, or freedom to speak the truth, one’s inner voice is believed in as the core of the person’s reason for living, and if such a value is destroyed, the person feels one’s existence as a self might as well be destroyed likewise. “Give me liberty or give me death,” is not just rhetoric nor is it pathological. Since the dominant values for most people in our society are being liked, accepted and approved of, much anxiety in our day comes from the threat of not being liked, being isolated, lonely or cast off. #RandolphHarris 12 of 17

Most examples of anxiety given above are normal anxiety, that is, anxiety which is proportionate to the real threat of the danger situation. In a fire, battle, or crucial examination in the university, for example, anyone would feel more or less anxiety—it would be unrealistic not to. Every human being experiences normal anxiety in many different ways as one develops and confronts the various crises of life. The more one is able to face and move through these normal crises—the weaning from mother, going off to school, independence from dad’s credit card, and sooner or later taking responsibility for his or her own vocation and marriage decisions—the less neurotic anxiety one will develop. Normal anxiety cannot be avoided; it should be frankly admitted to one’s self. However, most neurotic anxiety comes from such unconscious psychological conflicts. The person feels threatened, but it is as though by a ghost; one does not know where the enemy is, or ow to fight it or flee from it. These unconscious conflicts usually get started in some previous situation of threat which the person did not feel strong enough to face, such as a child’s having to deal with a dominating and possessive partner or having to face the fact that one’s family does not love him or her. The real problem is then repressed, and it returns later as an inner conflict bringing with it neurotic anxiety. #RandolphHarris 13 of 17

The way to deal with neurotic anxiety is to bring out the original real experience one was afraid of, and ten to work the apprehension through as normal anxiety or fear. In dealing with any severe neurotic anxiety, the mature and wise step is to get professional psychotherapeutic help. However, our main concern is to understand how to use normal anxiety constructively. And to do that we need to make clearer one very important point, the relation between a person’s anxiety and one’s self-awareness. After a terrifying experience such as a battle or fire, people often remark, “I felt as though I were possessed.” This is because anxiety knocks out the props, so to speak, from our awareness of ourselves. Anxiety, like a torpedo, strikes underneath at the deepest level, or core, of ourselves, and it is on this level that we experience ourselves as persons, as subjects who can act in a World of objects. Thus anxiety in greater or lesser degree tends to destroy our consciousness of ourselves. When we are in a state of anxiety, or panic we become disoriented, and our clear knowledge of who we are and what is going on is temporarily wiped out, and it blurs our view of reality around us. This betwixting—this confusion as to who we are and what we should do—is the most painful thing about anxiety. #RandolphHarris 14 of 17

However, the beneficial and hopeful side is that just as anxiety destroys our self-awareness, so awareness of ourselves can destroy anxiety. That is to say, the stronger our consciousness of ourselves, the more we can take a stand against and overcome anxiety. Anxiety, like fever, is a sign that an inner struggle is in progress. As fever is a symptom that the body is mobilizing its physical powers and giving battle to the infection, let us say the tuberculosis bacilli in the lungs, so anxiety is evidence that a psychological or spiritual battle is going on. We have noted above that neurotic anxiety is the sign of an unresolved conflict within us, and so long as the conflict is present, there is an open possibility that we can become aware of the causes of the conflict, and find a solution on a higher level of health. Neurotic anxiety is nature’s way, as it were, of indicating to us that we need to solve a problem. The same is true of normal anxiety—it is a signal for us to call up our reserves and do battle against a threat. As the fever in our example is a symptom of the battle between the bodily powers and the infecting germs, so anxiety is evidence of a battle between our strength as a self on one side and a danger which threatens to wipe out or existence as a self on the other. The more the threat wins, the more then our awareness of ourselves is surrendered, curtailed, hemmed in. #RandolphHarris 15 of 17

However, the greater our self-strength—that is, the greater our capacity to preserve our awareness of ourselves and the objective World around us—the less we will be overcome by the threat. There is still hope for a tuberculous patient so long as he has a fever; but in the final stages of the infirmary, when the body has given up as it were, the fever leaves and soon the patient dies. However, they deserve the opportunity to pass naturally, because in the last few moments there could be a miracle and the patient could recover. Just so, the only thing which would signify the loss of hope for getting through our present difficulties as individuals and as a nation, would be a resigning into apathy, and a failure to feel and face our anxiety constructively. Our task, then, is to strengthen our consciousness of ourselves, to find centers of strength within ourselves which will enable us to stand despite the confusion and bewilderment around us. We must be committed to the recognition that all great changes are preceded by a vigorous intellectual reevaluation and reorganization. The sin of hubris may be avoided by showing that the creative process itself is not a free activity if by free we mean arbitrary, or unrelated to cosmic law. For the creative process in the human mind, the developmental process in organic nature and the basic laws of the inorganic realm may be but varied expressions of a universal formative process. #RandolphHarris 16 of 17

The present period is one of exceptional tensions, but there is also at work an exceptional movement toward a compensating unity which refuses to violate the ultimate moral power at work in the Universe, that very power upon which all human effort must at last depend. In this way we may come to understand that there exists an inherent interdependence of spiritual and mental growth which, though conditioned by circumstances, is never determined by circumstances. In this way the great plethora of human knowledge may be correlated wit an insight into the nature of human nature by being attuned to the wide and deep range of human thought and human experience. It can be troublesome when we cannot filter out unwanted sensations. It is annoying to have static on your car radio or to walk into a building that smells like smoke or garlic. These sensations and perception can work against each other. Not only do we have competing sensations to wade through and sort out, we may also have to compete with our own expectations, assumptions, prejudices, or personal needs. “I am mindful of you always in my prayers, continually praying unto God the Father in the name of his Holy Child, Jesus, that he, through his infinite goodness and grace, will keep you through the endurance of faith on his name to the end,” reports Moroni 8.3. #RandolphHarris 17 of 17

For Each Beloved Hour Heaven Had Come so Near and Wisdom is More Becoming Viewed at Distance than at Hand


I think on the contrary that I am now responsible for the supreme human obligation: to investigate the highest use of my powers. All ideas to make work interesting and meaningful again are really romantic dreams—the dreams of home ownership, buying your dream car, saving money, having a family, buying new clothes and book, the latest electronics and food you like are just a few of the many things that motivate people to work.  In contrast, daydreaming is a symptom of lacking relatedness to reality. People daydream because they are not yet able to achieve their goals and want a distraction, an idea of what like will be like sometime in the future, or what life could have been like, only if they had made different decisions. Daydreaming is not refreshing or relaxing—it is essentially an escape with all the negative result that go with escape. On the other hand, laziness, far from being normal, is a symptom of mental pathology. In fact, one of the worst forms of mental suffering is boredom, not knowing what to do with oneself and one’s life. Even if mortals have no monetary, or any other reward, one would be eager to spend one’s energy in some meaningful way because one could not stand the boredom which inactivity produces. Let us look at children: they are never lazy; given the slightest encouragement, or even without it, they are busy playing, asking questions, inventing stories, without any incentive expect the pleasure in the activity itself. #RandolphHarris 1 of 18

In the field of psychopathology we find that the person who has no interest in doing anything is seriously sick and is far from exhibiting the normal state of human nature. There is plenty of material about workers during periods of unemployment, who suffer as much, or more, from the enforced rest, as from material deprivations. There is just as much material to show that for many people over the sixty-five the necessity to stop working leads to profound unhappiness, and in many instances to physical deterioration and illness. Nevertheless, pain is important to our survival. It is a signal that we are being hurt and that we should do something to protect ourselves. Research indicates that there may be specific free nerve endings all over the body that convey the message of pain to the brain. If any of these receptors are stimulated to at least a certain degree of intensity, we feel pain. Some people are able to stand much more pain than others. They have a high pain threshold. More stimulation is needed to cause them pain. Some people can raise their pain threshold through hypnosis, medication, or some other training. Pain is also thought to be a great motivator because it pushes people to find an escape, to get more creative about their work, to finally produce something that will make them a success so they can escape the pain. #RandolphHarris 2 of 18

 Some people would rather experience pain than boredom, as boredom could lead to dangerous and destructive behaviors. Nevertheless, there are good reasons for the widespread belief in mortal’s innate laziness. The main reason lies in the fact that alienated work is boring and unsatisfactory; that a great deal of tension and hostility is engendered, which leads to an aversion against the work one is doing and everything connected with it. As a result, we find a longing for laziness and for doing noting to be the ideal of many people. Thus, people feel that their laziness is the natural state of mind, rather than the symptom of a pathological condition of life, the result of meaningless and alienated work. Examining the current views on work motivation, it becomes evident that they are based on the concept of alienated work and hence that their conclusions do not apply to nonalienated, attractive work. Yet, not all nonalienated attractive work pays well, and still renders pain, but people keep going because they believe that one day their hard work will somehow pay off. Everyone has a story to tell and is just looking for the right person to tell it to. #RandolphHarris 3 of 18

However, not everyone is looking to get famous off of their story and share it with the World. Some people just want to share their story with the right party, who can take the appropriate actions. When we are not able to express what we are going through and immediately take action, do not get frustrated and keep your faith in God. Know that God sees everything, and he loves you. God did not bring you this far to let you fall in despair. The conventional and most common theory is that money is the main incentive for work. This answer can have two different meanings: first, that the fear of starvation is the main incentive for work; in this case the argument is undoubtedly true. Many types of work would never be accepted on the basis of wages or other work conditions were the worker not confronted with the alternative of accepting these conditions or of starvation. The unpleasant, undesirable work in our society is done not voluntarily, but because the need to make a living forces so many people to do it. More often the concept of money incentive refers to the wish to earn more money as the motivation to greater effort in working. If mortals were not lured by the hope of greater monetary reward, this argument says, one would not work at all, or at least, would work without interest. #RandolphHarris 4 of 18

This conviction still exists among the majority of industrialists, as well as among many union leaders. Thus, for instance, fifty manufacturing executives replied to the question as to what is of importance in increasing worker’s productivity: 44 percent responded that money alone is the answers, 28 percent declared money is by far the chief thing but some importance is to be attached to less tangible things, and another 28 percent said that money is important but beyond a certain point it will not produce results. Actually, employers throughout the World are in favor of wage-incentive plans as the only means which lead to higher productivity of the individual worker, to higher earnings for the workers and employers and thus, indirectly, to reduced absenteeism, easier supervision, and so on. Reports and surveys from industry and government bureaus generally attest to the effectiveness of wage-incentive plans in increasing productivity and achieving other objectives. It seems that workers also believe that incentive pay gets the most output per mortal. In fact, 65 percent of employees said that incentive pay makes for higher production. However, as to the question of which method of pay they prefer, 65 percent said that incentive pay increases output and 29 percent stated that incentive pay. (The ratio pf preference for hourly pay was 74 to 20 in the case of hourly workers, but even in the case of workers already on incentive pay, 59 percent were in favor of hourly pat as against 36 percent in favor of incentive pay.) #RandolphHarris 5 of 18

 The latter findings show that as useful as incentive pay is in raising output, it does not in itself solve the problem of obtaining workers’ cooperation. In some circumstances it may intensify that problem. This opinion is shared increasingly by industrial psychologists and even some industrialists. However, the discussion about money incentives would be incomplete if we did not consider the fact that the same wish for more money is constantly fostered by the same industry which relies on money as the main incentive for work. By advertising, installment plan systems, and many other devices, the individual’s greed to buy more and newer things is stimulated to the point that one can rarely have enough money to satisfy these needs. Thus, being artificially stimulated by industry, the monetary incentive plays a greater role than it otherwise would. Furthermore, it goes without saying that the monetary incentive must play a paramount role as long as it is the only incentive because the work process itself is unsatisfactory and boring. There are many examples of cases in which people choose work with less monetary reward if the work itself is more interesting. Aside from money, prestige, status and the power that goes with it are assumed to be the main incentives for work. There is no need to prove that the craving for prestige and power constitutes the most powerful incentive for work today among the middle and upper classes; in fact, the importance of money is largely that of representing prestige, at least as much as security and comfort. #RandolphHarris 6 of 18

However, while economic independence and skill were important satisfactions for the independent businessperson, artisan, and highly skilled worker, these motivations are now rapidly decreasing. Discoveries are starting great waves of change in human culture, and in such a manner that these discoveries may deepen not erode the sense of universal human community. The differences in the disciplines, their epistemological exclusiveness, the variety of historical experiences, the differences of traditions, of cultures, of languages, of the arts, should be protected and preserved. However, the interrelationship and unity of the whole should at the same time be accepted. The ultimate awareness to the hopes and fears which pervade modern society rest on the moral fibre of mortals, and on the wisdom and responsibility of those who promote the course of its development. However, moral decisions cannot dispense with an insight into the interplay of the objective elements which offer and limit the choices made. Therefore, an understanding of what the issues are, though not a sufficient condition, is necessary prerequisite for directing action toward constructive solutions. Other vital questions explored relate to problems of international understanding as well as to problems dealing with prejudice and the resultant tensions and antagonisms. #RandolphHarris 7 of 18

The growing perception and responsibility of our World Age point to the new reality that the individual person and the collective person supplement and integrate each other; that the thrall of totalitarianism of bot left and right has been shaken in the universal desire to recapture the authority of truth and human totality. Humankind can finally place its trust not in a proletarian authoritarianism, not in a secularized humanism, both of which have betrayed the spiritual property right of history, but in a sacramental fellowship and unity of knowledge. This new consciousness has created a widening of human horizons beyond every parochialism, and a revolution in human thought comparable to the basic assumption, among the ancient Greek, of the sovereignty of reason; corresponding to the great effulgence of the moral conscience articulated by the Hebrew prophets; analogous to the fundamental assertions of Christianity; or to the beginning of the new scientific era, the era of the science of dynamics, the experimental foundations of which were laid by Galileo in the Renaissance. An important effort to re-examine the contradictory meanings and applications which are given today to such terms as democracy, freedom, justice, love, peace, fellowship and God. The purpose of such inquires is to clear the way for the foundation of a genuine World history not in terms of nation or race or culture but in terms of mortals in relation to God, to oneself, one’s fellow humans and the Universe, that reach beyond immediate self-interest. #RandolphHarris 8 of 18

For the meaning of the World Age consists in respecting one’s hopes and dreams which lead to a deeper understanding of the basic values of all peoples. World Perspectives is planned to gain insight into the meaning of mortals, who not only are determined by history but who also determines history. History is to be understood as concerned not only with the life of mortals on this planet but as including also such cosmic influences as interpenetrate our human World. This generation is discovering that history does not conform to the social optimism of modern civilization and that the organization of human communities and the establishment of freedom and peace are not only intellectual achievements but spiritual and moral achievements as well, demanding a cherishing of the wholeness of feeling and thought, and constituting a never-ending challenge to mortals, emerging from the abyss of meaninglessness and suffering, to be renewed and replenished in the totality of one’s life. Justice itself, which has been in a state of pilgrimage and crucifixion and now is being slowly liberated from the grip of social and political demonologies in the East as well as in the West, begins to question its own premises. #RandolphHarris 9 of 18

The modern revolutionary movements which have challenged the sacred institutions of society by protecting injustice in the name of social justice are here examined and re-revaluated. In the light of this, we have no choice but to admit that the unfreedom against which freedom is measured must be retained with it, namely, that the aspect of truth out of which the night view appears to emerge, the darkness of our time, is as little abandonable as is mortal’s subjective advance. Thus the two sources of mortal’s consciousness are inseparable, not as dead but as living and complementary, an aspect of that principle of complementarity through which Niels Bohr has sought to unite the quantum and the wave, both of which constitute the very fabric of life’s radiant energy. There is in humankind today a counter force to the sterility and danger of a quantitative, anonymous mass culture; a new, if sometimes imperceptible, spiritual sense of convergence toward human and World unity on the basis of the sacredness of each human person and respect for the plurality of cultures. There is a growing awareness that equality may not be evaluated in mere numerical terms but is proportionate and analogical in its reality. For when equality is equated with interchangeability, individuality is negated and the human person transmuted into a faceless mask. #RandolphHarris 10 of 18

We stand at the brink of an age of a World in which human life presses forward to actualize new forms. The false separation of mortals and nature, of time and pace, of freedom and security, is acknowledged, and we are faced with a new vision of mortals in one’s organic unity and of history offering a richness and diversity of equality and majesty of scope  hitherto unprecedented. In relating the accumulated wisdom of mortal’s spirit to the new reality of the World age, in articulating its thought and belief, we seek to encourage a renaissance of hope in society and of pride in mortal’s decision as to what one’s destiny will be. Mortals have certainly contrived to change the environment, but subject to the new process involved in this change, the same process of selection continues to operate. The environment has changed partly in a physical and geographical sense, but more particularly from the knowledge owe now possess. The Biblical story of Adam and Eve contains a deep lesson, which a casual reading hardly reveals. Once the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge has been eaten, the World is changed. #RandolphHarris 11 of 18

The new World is dictated by the knowledge itself, not of course by an edict of God. The Biblical story has further interest in that the new World is said to be much worse than the former idyllic state of ignorance. Today we are beginning to wonder whether this might also be true. Yet we are uneasy, apprehensive, and our fears lead to the collapse of civilizations. Thus we turn to the truth that knowledge and life are indivisible, even as life and death are inseparable. We are what we know and think and feel; we are linked with history, with World, with the Universe, and faith in Life creates its own verification. All this is sharply expressed in the relation of faith and doubt. If faith is understood as belief that something is true, doubt is incompatible with the act of faith. If faith is understood as being ultimately concerned, doubt is a necessary element in it. It is a consequence of the risk of faith. The doubt which is implicit in faith is not a doubt about facts or conclusions. It is not the same doubt which is the lifeblood of scientific research. Even the most orthodox theologian does not deny the right of methodological doubt in matters of empirical inquiry or logical deduction. A scientist who would say that a scientific theory is beyond doubt would at that moment cease to be scientific. #RandolphHarris 12 of 18

One may believe that the theory can be trusted for all practical purposes. Without such a belief no technical application of a theory would be possible. One could attribute to this kind of belief pragmatic certainty sufficient for action. Doubt in this case point to the preliminary character of the underlying theory. It is the very badness of the act that gives it then its vertiginous fascination. Remove the prohibition, and the attraction stops. How shall we define anxiety, and how is it related to fear?In my university days a student threw himself from an upper entry window of one of the college buildings and was nearly killed. Another student, a friend of mine, has to pass the window daily in coming and going from his room, and experienced a dreadful temptation to imitate the deed. Being a Catholic, he told hid director, who said, “All right! if you must, you must,” and added, “go ahead and do it,” thereby instantly quenching his desires. This director knew how to minister to a mind diseased. (However, this example is not recommended, the results could dangerous.) In one patient attacks of acute loneliness, developing into panic were not infrequent. He could not orient himself in the panics, could not hang on to his sense of time, became, as long as the bout of loneliness lasted, numb in his reactions to the World. #RandolphHarris 13 of 18

The ghostlike character of his loneliness was shown in the fact that it could vanish instantaneously with a ring on the phone or his hearing the step of someone coming down the hall. He tired desperately to fight off these attacks—as we all do, which is not surprising since acute loneliness seems to be the most painful kind of anxiety which a human being can suffer. Patients often tell us that the pain is a physical gnawing in their chests, or feels like the cutting of a razor in their heart region, as well as a mental state of feeling like an infant abandoned in a World where nobody exists. This patient would try, when the loneliness began, to wrench his mind away to thoughts about something else, to get busy doing work or go out to a movie—but no matter what escape he tried, there remained the haunting, satanic menace hovering being him like a hated presence waiting to plunge a rapier into his lungs. If here were working, he could practically hear the Mephistophelean laugh behind him mocking him with the reminder that his stratagem would not succeed; sooner or later he would have to stop, more fatigued than ever—and immediately would come the rapier. #RandolphHarris 14 of 18

Or, if he were in the movies, the awareness could not be suppressed every time the scene changed that his gnawing ache would come back again as soon as he stepped out on the street. However, one day, he came in reporting that he had made a surprising discovery. When an acute attack of loneliness was beginning, it occurred to him not to try to fight it off—running had never helped anyway. Why not accept it, breathe with it, turn toward it and not away? Amazingly, the loneliness did not overwhelm him when he confronted it directly. Then it seemed even to diminish. Emboldened, he began to invite it by imagining situations in the past when he was acutely lonely, the memories of which had, up to now, always been sure to cue off the panic. However strangely enough, the loneliness had lost its power. He could not feel the panic even when he tried. The more he turned on it and welcomed it, the more impossible it was even to imagine how he had ever been lonely in that unbearably painful way before. The patient had discovered—and was teaching me that day—that he felt the acute loneliness only as he ran; when he turned on the devil, it vanished, to use metaphorical language. However, it is not metaphorical to state that the very running is a response which assures the soul uses it power. It is surely true that the anxiety (or loneliness) has the upper hand as long as we continue to run. #RandolphHarris 15 of 18

In fear we know what threatens us, we are energized by the situation, our perceptions are sharper, and we take steps to run or in the other appropriate ways to overcome the danger. In anxiety, however, we are threatened without knowing what steps to take to meet the danger. Anxiety is the feeling of being caught, overwhelmed; and instead of becoming sharper, our perceptions generally become blurred or vague. Anxiety may occur in slight or great intensity. It may be a mild tension before meeting some important person; or it may be apprehension before an examination when one’s future is at stake and one is uncertain whether one is prepared to pass the exam. Or it may be the stark terror, when beads of sweat appear on one’s forehead, in waiting to hear whether a loved one is lost in a plane wreck, or whether one’s child is drowned or gets back safely after the storm on the lake. People experience anxiety in al sorts of ways: a gnawing within, a construction of the chest, a general bewilderment; of they may describe it as feeling as though all the World around were dark gray or black, or as though a heavy weight were upon them, or a feeling like the terror which a small child experiences when he realizes he is lost. Anxiety (loneliness or abandonment anxiety being its most painful form) overcomes the person to the extent tat one loses orientation in the objective World. #RandolphHarris 16 of 18

To lose the World is to lose one’s self, and vice versa; self and World are correlates. The function of anxiety is to destroy the self-World relationship, for instance, to disorient the victim in space and time and, so long as this disorientation lasts, the person remains in a state of anxiety. Anxiety overwhelms the person precisely because of the preservation of this disorientation. Now if the person can reorient oneself, as happens, one hopes in psychotherapy—and again relate oneself to the World directly, experientially, with one’s senses alive, one overcomes the anxiety. It is often helpful for a person to see oneself struggling against an adversary. For then, instead of waiting forever for the therapy to analyze away the anxiety, one can help in one’s own treatment by taking practical steps when one experiences anxiety such as stopping and asking just what it was that occurred in reality or in one’s fantasies that preceded the disorientation which cued off the anxiety. One is not only opening the doors of one’s closet where the ghosts hide, but one often can also then take steps to reorient oneself in one’s practical life by making new human relationships and finding new work which interests the individual. #RandolphHarris 17 of 18

Still looking at my patient who had been obsessed with loneliness, let us ask: What was the constructive side of this soul which presumably had gone awry? Being a sensitive, gifted person, he had achieved notable success in practically all realms of human experience except personal intimacy. His gifts included a capacity for interpersonal empathy and a good deal of tenderness—most of which had been absorbed in his self-preoccupation. He had failed to use his capacities for relationship; he had been unable to open himself up to others, to reach out to them, to share feelings and other aspects of personal experience, to identify with and affirm them in the ways necessary to build durable relationship. In short, what he had lacked, and now needed, was the exercise of his capacities to love in an active, outgoing concern for the other’s welfare, for the sharing of pleasure and delight as an “I” with “Thou,” for a communion of consciousness with his fellows. The soul, in the constructive scene in this case and put in the simplest terms, was his potentiality for active loving. Nature, is after all, but one manifestation of spiritual reality, which reveals itself more directly in thought and art. In future stages of evolution, spirit, without loss of self-consciousness, must ascend again through knowledge of its cosmic relations to its universality and transcendence over matter. #RandolphHarris 18 of 18

For Heaven is a Different Thing–I Now Find Myself  Approaching God on a Totally Undefined Path


You hopeless, egregious Boy! You are patently unworthy of all the philosophical considerations I have lavished upon you! Political liberty by itself is, in fact, always illusory. A mortal who lies in economic subjection six days, if not seven, a week, does not become free merely by making a cross on a ballot-paper once in five years. If freedom is to mean anything to the average mortal it must include industrial freedom. Until mortals at their work can know themselves members of a self-governing community of workers, they will remain essentially servile, whatever the political system under which they live. It is not enough to sweep away the degrading relation in which the wage-slave stands to an individual employer. When workers are left in bondage to a tyranny that is galling because it is impersonal, work is not as active, responsible, attractive, partial, and meaningful as it could be. Mortals are in chains everywhere because the disease of civilization is not so much material poverty of many as the decay of the spirit of freedom and self-confidence. The revolt that will change the World will spring, not from the benevolence that breeds reform, but from the will to be free. Mortals will act together in the full consciousness of their mutual dependence; but they will act for themselves. Their liberty will not be given them from above; they will take it on their own behalf. #RandolphHarris 1 of 15

Just voting for someone because they the first of their kind to make it in a field may not be freedom, it could be another form of bondage. What matters most is an individual’s mind set. We must put our appeal to the public not in the questions, “Is it not unpleasant to be poor, and will you not help to raise the poor?” but in this form: “Poverty is but a sign of mortal’s enslavement: to cure it you must cease to labour for others and must believe in yourself.” Wage-slavery will exit as long as there is a mortal or an institution that is the master of mortals: it will be ended when the works learn to set freedom before comfort. The average person will become one who seeks freedom not in order to secure a minimum standard of civilized life, but because they feel ashamed of the slavery that blinds them and their fellows, and because one is resolved to end the practices that make them slaves. We must find our soul and figure out what it wants to express and do things that we love to provide for ourselves and our families. And we must become the accredited agents of the community in the economic sphere. Recently, at 31 years of age, Andy Murray announced that he was in pain. His hip has been causing him profound physical discomfort for some time and it is no secret. He has been in a lot of pain for about two years, and has done everything he can do to feel better. #RandolphHarris 2 of 15

Andy Murray is a very successful tennis player, and he has many great achievements such as winning the Grand Slam singles tournament at the 2012 US Open. On 7 July 2013, Andy Murray won the 2013 Wimbledon Championships. Andy Murray was also the only man in history to win an Olympic Gold and US Open in the same calendar year, as well as the third man to hold the Gold Medal and two majors on different surfaces. He is also the very first tennis player and only man in its history to have won two Olympics Gold Medals in the singles category and on two different surfaces (grass in 2012, and hard in 2016), making a consecutive Olympics singles Gold Medal final in Rio 2016 and defending his title by defeating Juan Martin del Potro in the Gold Medal singles final. Subsequent to his success at the Olympic and Wimbledon in 2013, Andy Murray was voted the 2013 BBC Sports Personality of the Year. In summary, he is a very successfully young man, loves what he does for a living and is highly decorated. However, Andy Murray has played through the pain much of his 14-year career. It is hard for him to remember a time when playing tennis had been pain free. He was born with bipartite patella, a split kneecap, that was first diagnosed at the age of 16. #RandolphHarris 3 of 15

Andy Murray certainly pushed his body to the limit, as he had recurring problems whit his ankles and back. He tried various treatments, from strengthening the muscles around the joint to daily sessions with a portable ultrasound, but it was always containment not cure. The pain was part of his life. And trying so hard to thrive and continue doing what he loves, Andy Murray cried when he announced 11 January 2019 that he has to retire because he is in too much pain. However, it a great that Andy had a chance to live his dreams, make money, and get endorsements before he retires, so he has something to live off of. There are some people who get injured before they start their careers, and cannot work, but keep doing what they can, in hopes that someday they will find something they can do, make money and retired. Working everyday in extreme pain is not a good thing. This is why it is important for us to have faith. Faith is an act of human personality, as its centered and total act. An act of faith is an act of a finite being who is grasped by and turned to the infinite. It is a specific act with all the limitations of a mortal act, and it is an act in which the infinite participates beyond the limitations of calculable constrains. Faith is certain in so far as it is an experience of the holy. However, faith is uncertain in so far as the infinite to which it is related is received by a mortal. #RandolphHarris 4 of 15

This element of uncertainty in faith cannot be removed, it must be accepted. And the element in faith which accepts this is courage. Faith includes an element of immediate awareness which gives certainty and an element of uncertainty. To accept this is courage. In the courageous standing of uncertainty, faith shows must visibly its dynamic character. We have to interpret present and past events impinging on human life in our growing World Age and World consciousness and envisage what mortals may yet attain when summoned by an unbending inner necessity to the quest of what is most exalted in one. The purpose of faith is to offer new vistas in terms of World and human development while refusing to betray the intimate correlation between universality and individuality, dynamics and form, freedom and destiny. We come to understand that spirit and nature are not separate and apart; intuition and reason must regain their convergence as the means of perceiving and fusing inner being with outer reality. Anxiety, the other characteristic of modern mortals, is even more basic than emptiness and loneliness. For being hollow and lonely would not bother us except that it makes us prey to that peculiar psychological pain and turmoil called anxiety. No one who reads the morning newspaper needs to be persuaded that we live in an age of anxiety. We have had two World wars in modern history, economic upheavals and depressions, and it shows that the foundations of our World are shaken. #RandolphHarris 5 of 15

We have become so injured to living in a state of quasi-anxiety that our real danger is the temptation to hide our eyes in ostrich fashion. However, it is by imagination and understanding that we can face these upheavals openly, and see if, by courage and insight, we can use this anxiety constructively. It is a mistake to believe that the contemporary wars and depressions and government shutdowns and political threats are the total cause of our anxiety, for our anxiety also cases these catastrophes. The anxiety prevalent in our day and the succession of economic and political catastrophes our World has been going through are both symptoms of the same underlying cause, namely traumatic changes occurring in Western society. Fascist and Nazi totalitarianism, for example, do not occur because a Hitler or Mussolini decides to seize power. When a nation, rather, is prey to insupportable and economic want and is psychologically and spiritually empty, totalitarianism comes in to fill the vacuum: and the people sell their freedom as a necessity for getting rid of the anxiety which is too great for them to bear any longer. The confusion and bewilderment in our nation show this anxiety on a broad scale. In this period of wars and threats of wars, we know what we are against, namely, totalitarian encroachment of mortal’s freedom and dignity. #RandolphHarris 6 of 15

We are confident enough of our military strength, but we fight defensively, but other nations believe we are not sure if we waiting for things to go wrong or looking for solutions. We are confused about constructive goals—what are we working for? America seems to have become betwixted about the gestures of new agendas which give magnificent promise for a New World. When an individual suffers anxiety continuously over a period of time, one lays one’s body open to psychosomatic illness. When a group suffers continuous anxiety, with no agreed-on constructive steps to take, its members sooner or later turn against each other. Just so, when our nation is in confusion and bewilderment, we lay ourselves open to such poison as witch hunts, and the ubiquitous pressures to make every person suspicious of one’s neighbor. Turning our glance from the society to the individual, we see the most obvious expressions of anxiety in the prevalence of neurosis and other emotional disturbances—which, as practically every from Dr. Freud onward has agreed, have their root cause in anxiety and guilt about the past. People feel guilty because of the ways that they have treated others, so they bend the rules and break laws for certain protected classes of people to amend for their sins, even though it may not be the most rational thing to do and could put innocent lives in danger. #RandolphHarris 7 of 15

Anxiety likewise, is paranoia about the future, and the World might view others when they are perceived as being unjust for not allowing certain people to break the law in the name of humanity, but there is also a level of propaganda about why so many people are becoming so welcoming and humanistic all of the sudden. For some, it is about staying in power and totalitarianism. Some people think there is no point to negotiating, others think we need to hurry up and reach a resolution. Nevertheless, the impasse results in Anxiety. Anxiety is the common denominator psychologically of the psychosomatic disturbances—such as ulcers, many of the form of the great white plague—the greatest destroyer of human health and well-being. When we look below the surface of our individual anxiety, we find that it also comes from something more profound than the threat of war and economic uncertainty. We are anxious because we do not know what roles to pursue, what principles for action to believe in. Our individual anxiety, somewhat like that of the nation, is a basic confusion and bewilderment about where we are going. #RandolphHarris 8 of 15

Shall a mortal strive competitively to become economically successful and wealthy, as we used to be taught, or a good fellow who is liked by everyone? One cannot be both. Shall one follow the supposed teaching of the society with regard to pleasures of the flesh and be monogamous, or should one follow the average of what is done. Some people in typical communities are caught in a chaos of conflicting patterns, none of them wholly condemned, but no one of them clearly approved and free from confusion. That confusion has now gone deeper to the levels of feelings and desires. In such a bewilderment many persons experience the inward gnawing apprehension of the young man in Auden’s poem, The Age of Anxiety: “It is getting late. Shall we ever be asked for? Are we simply not wanted at all?” If anyone believes there are simple answers to these questions, one has neither understood the questions nor the times in which we live. This is a time when a whole generation is caught between two ages, two modes of life, with the consequences that it loses all power to understand itself and has no standards, no security, no simple acquiescence. However, it is well to remind ourselves that anxiety signifies a conflict, and so long as a conflict is going on, a constructive solution is possible. Indeed, our present upsets are as much a proof of new possibilities for the future. #RandolphHarris 9 of 15

What is necessary for the constructive use of anxiety is, first of all, that we frankly admit and face our perilous state, individually and socially. Both men and women need a self-assertion to bridge their separateness and to achieve union with each other and the World. Otherwise, the way we have amputated significant aspects of reality in overcultivation of power and control, we run the risk of losing exactly what we set out to gain. A curious thing which never fails to surprise persons in therapy is that after admitting their anger, animosity, and even hatred for society and berating people during the hour, they end up with feelings of love toward their peers and their community. A patient may have come in smoldering with negative feelings but resolved, partly unconsciously, to keep these, as a good gentleman or lady does, to oneself; but one finds that one represses the love for humanity at the same time as one suppresses their aggression. This is called the inclusion of the negative—which is essential if the beneficial is likewise to come out. What is occurring here is more than the fact that human consciousness works in polarity: the beneficial cannot come out until the negative does also. This is why in analysis, the negative is analyzed, with the hope—which becomes true often enough to justify the rule—that the beneficial will then able to come into its own. This is the constructive use value in facing and admitting of the World soul. #RandolphHarris 10 of 15

We recall that within our soul, we have the ability not simply to love, but also to hate. It has to do with an energizing, a shocking of our normal existence—it is a gadfly that keeps us forever awake; the soul is the breathless peace. Hate and love are not polar opposites; they go together, particularly in transitional ages like ours. We often see the drama on the streets of people who are communicating and it is clear, even if they are peaceful, they are uncomfortable and it is obvious in their nervous laughter or their hesitancy; not-knowing-whether-to-laugh; but that they are deeply affected by communication with community members is more obvious. This power comes from the soul wishes, thoughts, and feelings which go on in every person but are almost always denied in our bourgeois society. What bewitches us is that people often do not truly express how they feel because they are worried about impression management. Most human beings have some level of love for each other beneath the emotional savagery, but they are afraid of it and afraid of their own tenderness. To be able to experience and live out capacities for tender love requires the confronting of the soul. It is our goal to will something with each other. We can will because in the process of the struggles we all face, we learn to end our illusions, and that really strikes a chord with people in civilized societies. #RandolphHarris 11 of 15

It is clear that our soul lives in the subconscious and unconscious. One of the reasons that we have been able to rise to our unsurpassed height as a civilization is our courage and openness in facing the desires and dreams of our soul. We are glorified in passion and love. We have been able to achieve our belief that the essence of virtue for a mortal is that we responsibly choose our passions rather than being chosen by them. World perspectives endeavors to show that the conception of wholeness, unity, organism is a higher and more concrete conception that that of matter and energy. Thus an enlarged meaning of life, of biology, not as it is revealed in the test tube of a laboratory but as it is experienced within the organism of life itself, presents courage as an element of faith. This faith is the daring self-affirmation of one’s own being in spite of the powers of nonbeing which are the heritage of everything finite. Where there is daring and courage there is the possibility of failure. And in every act of faith this possibility is present. The risk must be taken. Whoever makes one’s nation one’s ultimate concern needs courage in order to maintain this concern. Only certain is the ultimacy as ultimacy, the infinite passion as infinite passion. This is a reality given to the self with one’s own nature. It is as immediate and as much beyond doubt as the self is to the self. It is the self in its self-transcending quality. #RandolphHarris 12 of 15

The principle of life consists in the tension which connects spirit with the realm of matter, symbiotically joined. The element of life is dominant in the very texture of nature, thus rendering life, biology, a transempirical science. The laws of life have their origin beyond their mere physical manifestations and compel us to consider their spiritual source. In fact, the widening of the conceptual framework has not only served to restore order within the respective branches of knowledge, but has also disclosed analogies in mortal’s position regarding the analysis and synthesis of experience in apparently separated domains of knowledge, suggesting the possibility of an ever more embracing objective description of the meaning of life. The risk to faith in one’s ultimate concern is indeed the greatest risk mortals can run. For if it proves to be a failure, the meaning of one’s life breaks down; one surrenders oneself, including truth and justice, to something which is not worth it. And that is why young people cry when they are forced to retire early from injuries, or why people get upset when they are striving to be a success and working through tremendous pain and never seem to make it. One has given away one’s person center without having a chance to regain it. The reaction of despair in people who have experienced the breakdown of their national claims is irrefutable proof of the idolatrous character of their national concern. #RandolphHarris 13 of 15

In the long run this is the inescapable result of an ultimate concern, the subject matter of which is not ultimate. And this is the risk faith must take; this is the risk which is unavoidable if a finite being affirms itself. However, it is risk and demands courage if it affirms a concrete concern. And every faith has a concrete element in itself. It is concerned about something or somebody. However, this something or this somebody may prove to be not ultimate at all. Then faith is a failure in its concrete expression, although it is not a failure in the experience of the unconditional itself. A god disappears; divinity remains. Faith risks the vanishing of the concrete god in whom it believes. It may well be that with the vanishing of the god the believer breaks down without being able to re-establish one centered self by a new content of one’s ultimate concern. This risk cannot be taken away from any act of faith. There is only one point which is a matter not of risk but of immediate certainty and herein lies the greatness and the pain of being human; namely, one’s standing between one’s finitude and one’s potential infinity. Knowledge no longer consist in a manipulation of mortals and nature as opposite forces, not in the reduction of data to mere statistical order, but is a means of liberating humankind from the destructive power of fear, pointing the way toward the goal of the rehabilitation of the human will and the rebirth of faith and confidence in the human person. #RandolphHarris 14 of 15

The cry for patterns, systems and authorities is growing less insistent as the desire grows stronger in both East and West for the recovery of a dignity, integrity and self-realization which are the inalienable rights of mortals who may now guide change by means of conscious propose in the light of rational experience. May a loving Father in Heaven bless us tomorrow to remember how we felt today, and bless us to strive with patience and persistence toward the ideals we have heard proclaimed about his knowing and divine love and unfailing help to be with us even when we struggle—no, especially when we struggle. Ultimately, we know that every physical ailment, malady, or imperfection will be healed in the Resurrection. However, Jesus Christ can heal more than just our physical bodies. He can heal our spirits as well. Throughout scripture we learn how Christ helped those whose spirits were weak and made them whole. As we ponder these experiences, our hope and faith in the Savior’s power to bless our lives increase. Jesus Christ can change our hearts, heal us from the effects of injustice or abuse we may experience, and strengthen our capacity to bear loss and heartaches, bringing us peace to help us endure the trials of our lives, healing us emotionally. “And again I say unto you, is there one among you that doth make a mock of one’s brother, or that heaps upon one persecutions? Wo unto such an one, for one is not prepared, and the time is at hand that one must repent or one cannot be saved,” reports Alma 5.30-31. #RandolphHarris 15 of 15


Be Well-Liked and You Will Never Want– They Act Like Disappointed Lovers Who Have Lost All Faith in Love!


I filled my house with the latest antiques. An echo of my own mental voice coming back to me. I hated it. It struck me, sharp and had, that I had been given so many chances to save my soul that my entire life had been constructed around these chances! Human beings seem to be receptive only to sound waves that vibrate at the frequency rate of from 20 to 20,000 cycles per second. Another way of putting it is that a message is picked up, which is simply light reflected off him an into your eyes. Humans are in the process of developing a new consciousness which, in spite of their apparent spiritual and moral captivity, can eventually lift the human race above and beyond the fear, ignorance, and isolation which beset it today. It is to this nascent consciousness, to this concept of mortals born out of a Universe perceived through a fresh vision of reality, that the mysterious character of the holy produces an ambiguity in mortal’s ways of experiencing it. The holy can appear as creative and destructive (referring again t the fascinating character of the nationalistic idolatry), and the terrifying and consuming element can be destructive and creative. This ambiguity, of which we still find traces in the Old Testament, is reflected in the ritual or quasi-ritual activities of religions and quasi religions (sacrifices of others or one’s bodily or mental self) which are strongly ambiguous. One can call this ambiguity divine-demonic, whereby the divine is characterized by the victory of the creative over the destructive possibility of the holy. #RandolphHarris 1 of 15

 In this situation, which is most profoundly understood in the prophetic religion of the Old Testament, a fight has been waged against the demonic destructive element in the holy. And this fight was so successful that the concept of the holy was changed. Holiness becomes justice and truth. It is creative and destructive. The true sacrifice is obedience to the law. This is the line of thought which finally led to the identification of holiness with mortal perfection. However, when this point is reached, holiness loses it meaning as the separated, the transcending, the fascinating and terrifying, the entirely other. All this is gone, and the holy has become the morally good and the logically true. It has ceased to be the holy in the genuine sense of the word. Summing up this development, one could say that the holy originally lies below the alternative of the good and the evil; that it is both divine and demonic; that with the reduction of the demonic possibility the holy itself becomes transformed in its meaning; that it becomes rational and identical with the true and the good; and that its genuine meaning must be rediscovered. These dynamics of the holy confirm what was said about the dynamics of faith. We have distinguished between true and idolatrous faith. The holy which is demonic, or ultimately destructive, is identical with the content of idolatrous faith. Idolatrous faith is still faith. The holy which is demonic is still holy. #RandolphHarris 2 of 15

This is the point where the ambiguous character of religion is most visible and the dangers of faith are most obvious: the danger of faith is idolatry and the ambiguity of the holy is its demonic possibility. Our ultimate concern can destroy us as it can heal us. However, we never can be without it. Mortals have entered a new era of evolutionary history, one in which rapid change is a dominant consequence. One is contending with a fundamental change, since one has intervened in the evolutionary process. One must now better appreciate this fact and then develop the wisdom to direct the process toward one’s fulfillment rather than toward their destruction of humanity. As one learned to apply one’s understanding of the physical World for practical purposes, one is, in reality, extending one’s innate capacity and augmenting one’s ability and one’s need to communicate as well as one’s ability to think and create. And as a result one is substituting a goal-directed evolutionary process in one’s struggle against environmental hardship for the slow, but effective, biological evolution which produced modern mortals through mutation and natural selection. By intelligent intervention in the evolutionary process mortals have greatly accelerated and greatly expanded the range of one’s possibilities. #RandolphHarris 3 of 15

 However, one has not changed the basic fact that it remains a trial and error process, with the danger of taking paths that lead to sterility of mind and heart, moral apathy and intellectual inertia; and even producing social dinosaurs unfit to live in an evolving World. Only those spiritual and intellectual leaders of our epoch who have a paternity in this extension of mortal’s horizons are invited to participate in the Series: those who are aware of the truth beyond the divisiveness among mortals there exists a primordial unitive power since we are all bound together by a common humanity more fundamental than any unity of dogma; those who recognize that the centrifugal force which has scattered and atomized humankind must be replaced by an integrating structure and process capable of bestowing meaning and purpose on existence; those who realize that science itself, when not inhibited by the limitations of its own methodology, when chastened and humbled, commits mortals to an indeterminate range of yet undreamed consequences that may flow from it. Virtually all of our disciplines have relied on conceptions which are now incompatible with the Cartesian axiom, and with the static World view once derived from it. #RandolphHarris 4 of 15

 For underlying the new ideas, including those of modern physics, is a unifying order, but it is not causality; it is purpose, and not the purpose of the Universe and of mortals, but the purpose in the Universe and in mortals. In other words, we seem to inhabit a World of dynamic process and structure. Therefore we need a calculus of potentiality rather than one of probability, a dialectic of polarity, one in which unity and diversity are redefined as simultaneous and necessary poles of the same essence. As we know, totalitarian solutions quite obviously leads only to increased insanity and dehumanization; it increases mortal’s alienation, their automatization, and completes the process of making mortals a servant to the idol of production. The only constructive solution is to possess the aims and implement a fundamental reorganization of our economic and social system in the directing of freeing mortals from being used as a means for purpose outside of oneself, of creating a social order in which human solidarity, reason and productiveness are furthered rather than hobbled. Mortals, their emotional and intellectual powers, are the aim and goal of culture. However, when we have a good deal of regimentation and bureaucratization, it does not increase human freedom nor independence. #RandolphHarris 5 of 15

Many people would like to see greater security, greater prosperity in the system so one not need be afraid that the new bureaucracy will not be dangerous. People want a new society of solidarity and faith, in which the individual has found oneself and has emerged from the alienation of the anxiety that is present in society. However, many people are satisfied with the practical activities at hand; still others, have lost faith in a renewal of society. This is why some leaders find it important to give the impression that everything is all right with the World, if we could only protect our citizens from the threat of a lack of security and taxation without representation; they act like disappointed lovers who have lost all faith in love. Yet it is quite beyond doubt that the problems of social transformation are not as difficult to solve—theoretically and practically—as the technical problems our chemists and physicists have solved. And it can also not be doubted that we are more in need of a human renaissance than we are in need of new sports stadiums and electric cars. Another important reason for the feeling of loneliness and dysfunction arises from the fact that our society lays such a great emphasis on being socially accepted. It is our chief way of allaying anxiety, and our chief mark of prestige. Thus we always have to prove we are a social success by being forever sought after and by never being alone. #RandolphHarris 6 of 15

Without my work in natural science, I should never have known human beings as they really are. In no other activity can one come so close to direct perception and clear thought, or realize so fully the errors of the senses, the mistakes of the intellect, the weaknesses and greatnesses of human character. Of all the electromagnetic energy in the Universe, our eyes are only sensitive to those light waves or particles having frequencies of between 400 nanometers (millimicrons) and about 780 nanometers. The phenomenon of subliminal perception involved perceptions of light energy that occur too rapidly to be seen, but which are recorded in the visual cortex. So people are constantly picking up on energy, light, and vibrations that they are not even aware of. That is why it is important to make sure you feel okay inside when you go out in public. It will decrease the chance of attracting negative reactions from others, and it is also a way to make sure that you are in control of your own energy. If one is well-liked, that is, socially successful—so the idea goes—one will rarely be alone; not to be liked is to have lost out in the race. In the days of the gyroscope mortals and earlier, the chief criterion of prestige was financial success: now the belief is that if one is well-liked, financial success and prestige will follow. “Be well-liked, Willie Loman in Death of a Salesman advises his children, “and you will never want.” #RandolphHarris 7 of 15

The reverse side of modern mortal’s loneliness is one’s great fear of being alone. In our culture it is permissible to say you are lonely, for that is a way of admitting that it is not good to be alone. In our culture it is permissible to say you are lonely, for that is a way of admitting that it is not good to be alone. The melancholy romantic songs present this sentiment, with the appropriate nostalgia: Me and my shadow, not a soul to tell our troubles to. Just me and my shadow, all alone and feeling blue. And it is permissible to want to be alone temporarily to get away from it all. However, if one mentioned at a party that one liked to be alone, not for a rest or an escape, but for its own joys, people would think that something was vaguely wrong with that person—that some pariah aura of untouchability or sickness hovered round him or her. If a person is alone very much of the time, people tend to think of that individual as a failure, for it is inconceivable to them that one would choose to be alone. However, as Beyonce says, “I am known to walk alone, and I am alone for a reason,” in her song Upgrade. So people need to be alone for safety reasons, to protect themselves from others who are trying to exploit them and take advantage of them, until they can find someone or people they can trust. #RandolphHarris 8 of 15

However, for most people, this fear of being alone lies behind the great need of people in our society to get invited places, or if they invite someone else, to have the other accept. The pressure to keep dated up goes way beyond such realistic motives as the pleasure and warmth people get in each other’s company, the enrichment of feelings, ideas and experiences, or the sheer pleasure of relaxation. Actually, such motives have very little to do with the compulsion to get invited. Many of the more sophisticated persons are well aware of these points, and would like to be able to say “No”; but they very much want the chance to go, and to turn down invitations in the usual round of social life means sooner or later one will not get invited. The cold fear that protrudes its icy head from subterranean levels is that one would then be shut out entirely, left on the outside. To be sure, in al ages people have been afraid of loneliness and have tried to escape it. People make great efforts to divert themselves, and the purpose of the bulk of these diversions are to enable people to avoid thoughts of themselves. One does everything possible by way of diversion and the Janizary music of loud-voices enterprises to keep lonely thoughts away, just as in the forest of America they keep away wild beasts by torches, by yells, by the sound of cymbals. #RandolphHarris 9 of 15

However, the difference in our day is that the difference in our day is that the fear of loneliness is much more extensive, and the defenses against it—diversions, social rounds, and being liked—are more rigid and compulsive. Let us paint an impressionistic picture of a somewhat extreme though not otherwise unusual example of the fear of loneliness in our society as seen in the social activities at summer colony on the seashore, where people are vacationing and therefore do not have their work available for the time being as escape and support. It is of crucial importance for these people to keep up the continual merry-go-round of cocktail parties, despite the fact that they meet the same people every day at the parties, drink the same cocktails, and talk of the same subjects or lack of subjects. What is important is not what is said, but that some talk be continually going on. Silence is the great crime, for silence is lonely and frightening. One should not feel much, nor put much meaning into what one says: what you say seems to have more effect if you do not try to understand. One has the strange impression that these people are all afraid of something—what is it? It is as if the yatata were a primitive tribal ceremony, a witch dance calculated to appease some god. #RandolphHarris 10 of 15

There is a god, or rather a demon, they are trying to appease: it is the specter of loneliness which hovers outside like the fog drifting in the sea. One will have to meet this specter’s leering terror for the first half-hour one is awake in the morning anyway, so let one do everything possible to keep it away now. Figuratively speaking, it is the specter of death they are trying to appease—death as the symbol of ultimate separation, aloneness, isolation from other human beings. Admittedly, the above illustration is extreme. In the day-to-day experience of most of us, the fear of being alone may not crop up in intense form very often. We generally have methods of keeping lonely thoughts away, and our anxiety may appear only in occasional dreams of fright which we try to forget as soon as possible in the morning. However, these differences in intensity of the fear of loneliness, and the relative success of our defenses against it, do not change the central issue. Our fear of loneliness may not be shown by anxiety as such, but by subtle thoughts which pop up to remind us, when we discover we were not invited to so-and-so’s party, that someone else likes us even if the person in question does not, or to tell us that we were successful or popular in such-and-such other time in the past. #RandolphHarris 11 of 15

Often this reassuring process is so automatic that we are not aware of it in itself, but only of the ensuing comfort to our self-esteem. If we as citizens of the middle 21st century look honestly into ourselves, that is, look below our customary pretenses, do we not find this fear of isolation as an almost constant companion, despite its many masquerades? The fear of being alone derives much of its terror from our anxiety lest we lose our awareness of ourselves. If people contemplate being alone for longish periods of time, without anyone to talk to our any radio to eject noise into the air, they generally are afraid that they would be at loose ends, would lose the boundaries for themselves, would have nothing to bump up against, nothing by which to orient themselves. It is interesting that they sometimes say that if they were alone for long they would not be able to work or play in order to get tired; and so they would not be able to sleep. And then, they would lose the distinction between wakefulness and sleep, just as they lose the distinction between the subjective self and the objective World around them. “And never could a people more blessed than were they, and more prospered by the hand of the Lord. And they were in a land that was choice above all lands, for the Lord has spoken,” Ether 10.28. #RandolphHarris 12 of 15

Every human being gets much of one’s sense of one’s own reality out of what others say to him or her and think about him or her. However, many modern people have gone so far in their dependence on others for their feeling of reality that they are afraid that without it they would lose the sense of their own existence. They feel they would be dispersed, like water flowing every which way on sand. Many people are like visually impaired feeling their way along in life only by means of touching a succession of other people. In its extreme form, this fear of losing one’s orientation is the fear of psychosis. When persons actually are on the brink of psychosis, they have an urgent need to seek out some contact with other human beings. This is sound, for such relating gives them a bridge to reality. However, the point we are discussing here has a different origin. Modern Western mortals, trained through four centuries of emphasis on rationality, uniformity, and mechanics, has consistently endeavored, with unfortunate success, to repress the aspects of oneself which do not fit these uniform and mechanical standards. It is not too much to say that modern mortals, sensing one’s own inner hollowness, is afraid that if one should not have one’s regular associates around one, should not have the talisman of one’s daily program and one’s routine of work, if one should forget what time it is, that one would feel, though in an inarticulate way, some threat like that which one experiences on the brink of psychosis? #RandolphHarris 13 of 15

When one’s customary ways of orienting oneself are threatened, and one is without other selves around one, one is thrown back on inner resources and inner strength, and this is what modern mortals have neglected to develop. Hence loneliness is a real, not imaginary, threat to many of them. Social acceptance, being liked has so much power because it holds the feelings of loneliness at bay. A person is surrounded with comfortable warmth; one is merged in the group. One is reabsorbed—as though, in the extreme psychoanalytic symbol, one were to go back into the womb. One temporarily loses one’s loneliness; but it is at the price of giving up one’s existence as an identity in one’s own right. And one renounces the one thing which would get one constructively over the loneliness in the long run, namely the developing of one’s own inner resources, strength and sense of direction, and using this as a basis for meaningful relations with others. The stuffed mortals are bound to become more lonely no matter how much they lean together; for hollow people do not have a base from which to learn to love. However, every person, experiencing as one does one’s own solitariness and aloneness, longs for union with another. They yearn to participate in a relationship greater than oneself. Normally, one strives to overcome one’s aloneness through some form of love. #RandolphHarris 14 of 15

In love, there is a required self-assertion, a capacity to stand on one’s own feet, an affirmation of one’s self in order to have the power to put one’s self into the relationship. One must have something to give and be able to give. The danger, of course, is that one will over assert oneself—which is the source of the experience shown in the notion of being taken over by a demon. However, this negative side is not to be escaped by giving up self-assertion. For if one is unable to assert oneself, one is unable to participate in a genuine relationship. A dynamic dialectical relationship—I am tempted to call it a balance, but it is not a balance—is a continuous give-and-take in which one asserts oneself, finds an answer in the other, backs up but does not give up, shifts the participation to a new form, and finds the way that is adequate for the wholeness of the other. This is the constructive use of the soul. It is an assertion of one’s own individuality in relation to another person. It always skates on the edge of exploitation of the partner; but without it, there is no vital relationship. In its right proportion, the soul has the urge to reach out toward others, to increase life, to create, to civilize; it is the joy and rapture, or the simple security of knowing that we matter, that we can affect others, can form them, can exert power which is demonstrably significant. It is a way of making certain that we are valued. #RandolphHarris 15 of 15

Possessed by Genius–The Gift of Life is the Most Precious Chance One Has

I have plastered it, painted it, run its new wires, sanded its floors, and laid the gloss. I learned those skills out west, and all that time I lived out there I never forgot this house, used to pass it as a little boy, never forgot it, and never dreamed of course that one day I would be the master of it (chuckle), that is, if any mortal can be the master of this house, what this house has is a mistress, or even two, and for a time, for a long time. Come, let me show you the library. Though many philosophers, such as Owen and Proudhon, Tolstoy and Bakunin, Durkheim and Marx, Einstein and Schweitzer talk about it as they express different concepts, they all find that mortals have lost their central place, that they have been made an instrument for the purposes of economic aims, that one has been estranged from, and has lost the concrete relatedness to one’s fellow mortals and to nature, that one has ceased to have a meaningful life. I have tried to express the same idea by elaborating on the concept of alienation and by sowing psychologically what the psychological results of alienation are; that mortals regress to a receptive and marketing orientation and ceases to be productive; that they lose their sense of self, become dependent on approval, hence tending to conform and spend most of their energy in the attempt to compensate for or just cover up their anxiety. #RandolphHarris 1 of 15

Human intelligence is excellent, their reason deteriorates and in view of their technical powers they are seriously endangering the existence of civilization, and even of the human race. If we turn to view about the causes for this development, we find less agreement than in the diagnosis of the illness itself. While many are still prone to see the causes of all evil in the lack of political freedom, and especially of universal suffrage, others still stress the significance of economic factors. They believed that the alienation of mortals resulted from their role as an object of exploitation and use. Still spiritual and moral impoverishment is also a precipitating cause of Western mortal’s decay; in addition to repression of one’s instinctual drives and the resulting manifestations. However, what hold true for the causes of society’s infirmary, of course, is true for the remedies by which modern mortal’s defect can be cured. If I believe that the cause of the illness is economic, or spiritual, or psychological, I necessarily believe that remedying the cause leads to sanity. On the other hand, if I see how the various aspects are interrelated, I shall arrive at the conclusion that sanity and mental health can be attained only by simultaneous changes in the sphere of industrial and political organization, of spiritual and philosophical orientation, of character structure, and of cultural activities. The concentration of effort in any of these spheres, to the exclusion or neglect of others, is destructive of all change. #RandolphHarris 2 of 15

In fact, here seems to lie one f the most important obstacles to the progress of humankind. Christianity has preached spiritual renewal, neglecting the changes in the social order without which spiritual renewal must remain ineffective for the majority of the people. The age of enlightenment has postulated as the highest norms independent judgment and reason; it preached political equality without seeing that political equality could not lead to the realization of the fraternity of mortals if it was not accompanied by a fundamental change in the socioeconomic organization. While people stress the necessity for social and economic changes, they neglect the necessity of the inner change in human beings, without which economic change can never lead to the good society. Each of these great reform movements of the last two thousand years has emphasized one sector of life to the exclusion of the others; their proposals for reform and renewal were radical—but their results were almost complete failure. The preaching of the Gospel led to the establishment of the Catholic Church; the teachings of rationalists. The result could hardly be different. #RandolphHarris 3 of 15

Mortals are a unit; their thinking, feeling, and their practice of life are inseparably connected. One cannot be free in one’s thought when one is not free emotionally; and one cannot be free emotionally if one is dependent and unfree in one’s practice of life, in one’s economic and social relations. Trying to advance radically in one sector to the exclusion of others must be necessarily lead to the results to which it did lead, namely, that the radical demands in one sphere are fulfilled only by a few individuals, while for the majority they become formulae and rituals, serving to cover up the fact that in other spheres nothing has changed. Undoubtedly one step of integrated progress in all sphere of life will have more far-reaching and more lasting results for the progress of the human race than a hundred steps preached—and even for a short while lived—in only one isolated sphere. Several thousands of years of failure in isolated progress should be a rather convincing lesson. Closely related to this problem is that of radicalism and reform, which seems to form such a dividing line between various political solutions. Yet, a closer analysis can show that this differentiation as it is usually conceived of is deceptive. There is reform and reform; reform can be radical, that is, going to the roots, or it can be superficial, trying to patch up the symptoms without touching the cases. #RandolphHarris 4 of 15

Reform which is not radical, in this sense, never accomplishes its ends and eventually ends up in the opposite direction. So-called radicalism on the other hand, which believes that we can solve problems by force, when observation, patience and continuous activity is required, is as unrealistic and fictious as reform. The revolution of the Bolsheviks led to Stalinism, the reform of the right wing Social Democrats in Germany, led to Hitler. The true criterion of reform is not its tempo but its realism, its true racialism; it is the question whether it goes to the roots and attempts to change causes—or whether it remains on the surface and attempts to deal only with symptoms. We are discussing the roads to sanity, that is, methods of cure, and we had better pause here for a moment and ask ourselves what we know about the nature of cure in cases of individual mental diseases. The cure of social pathology must follow the same principle, since it is the pathology of so many human beings, and not of an entity beyond or apart from individuals. The conditions for the cure of individual pathology are mainly the following: A development must have occurred which is contrary to the proper functioning of the psyche. In frame of reference of humanistic psychoanalysis, the cause of pathology lie in the failure to develop a productive orientation, a failure which results in the development of irrational passions, especially of incestuous, destructive and exploitative strivings. #RandolphHarris 5 of 15

The fact of suffering, whether it is conscious or unconscious, resulting from the failure of normal development, produces a dynamic striving to overcome the suffering, that is, for change in the direction of health. This striving for healthy in our physical as well as in our mental organism is the basis for any cure of sickness, and it is absent only in the most severe pathology. The first step necessary to permit this tendency for health to operate is the awareness of the suffering and of that which is shut out and disassociated from our conscious personality. In this frame of reference, it refers to the repressed irrational passions, to the repressed feeing of aloneness and futility, and to the longing for love and productivity, which is also repressed. Increasing self-awareness can become fully effective only if a next step is taken, that on changing a practice of life which was built on the basis of the neurotic structure, and which reproduces it constantly. A patient, for instance, whose neurotic character makes one want to submit to parental authorities has usually constructed a life where one has chosen dominating or sadistic father images as bosses, teachers, and so on. One will be cured only if one changes one’s realistic life situation in such a way that it does not constantly reproduce the submissive tendencies one wants to give up. #RandolphHarris 6 of 15

Furthermore, one must change one’s system of values, norms and ideals, so that they further rather than block one’s striving for health and maturity. The same condition—conflict with the requirements of human nature and resulting suffering, awareness of what is shut out, and change of the realistic situation and of values and norms—are also necessary for a cure of social pathology. To show the conflict between human needs and our social structure, and to further the awareness of our conflicts and of that which is dissociated, was the purpose of the previous discussion. However, we still need to further discuss the various possibilities of practical changes in our economic, political and cultural organization. Yet, before we start discussing the practical questions, let us consider once more what constitutes mental sanity, and what type of culture could be assumed to be conductive to mental health. The mentally healthy person is the productive and unalienated person; the person who relates oneself to the World lovingly, and who uses one’s reason to grasp reality objectively; who experiences oneself as a unique individual entity, and at the same time feels one with one’s follow mortals; who is not subject to irrational authority, and accepts willingly the rational authority of conscience and reason; who is in the process of being born as long as one is alive, and considers the gift of life the most precious chance one has.  #RandolphHarris 7 of 15

Let us also remember that these goals of mental health are not ideals which have to be forced upon the person, or which mortals can attain only if one has overcome one’s nature, and sacrifices for one’s innate selfishness. On the contrary, the striving for mental health, for happiness, harmony, love, productiveness, is inherent in every human being who is not born as a mental or moral idiot. Given a chance, these strivings assert themselves forecefully, as can be seen in countless situations. In takes powerful constellations and circumstances to pervert and stifle this innate striving for sanity; and indeed, throughout the greater part of known history, the use of mortal by mortal has produced such perversion. To believe tat this perversion is inherent in mortals is like throwing seeds in the soil of the desert and claiming they were not meant to grow. What society corresponds to this aim of mental health, and what would be the structure of a sane society? First of all, a society in which no mortal is a means toward another’s end, but always and without exception an end in oneself; hence, where nobody is used, nor uses oneself, for purposes which are not those of the unfolding of one’s own human powers; where mortals are the center, and where all economic and political activities are subordinated to the aim of one’s growth. #RandolphHarris 8 of 15

A sane society is one in which qualities like greed, exploitativeness, possessiveness, narcissism, have no chance to be used for greater material gain or for the enhancement of one’s personal prestige. Where acting according to one’s conscience is looked upon a as fundamental and necessary quality and where opportunism and lack of principles is deemed to be asocial; where the individual is concerned with social matters so that they become personal matters, where one’s relation to one’s fellow mortals is not separated from one’s relationship in the private sphere. A sane society, furthermore, is one which permits mortals to operate within manageable and observable dimensions, and to be an active and responsible participant in the life of society, as well as the master of one’s own life. It is one which furthers human solidarity and not only permits, but stimulates, its members to relate themselves to each other lovingly; a sane society furthers the productive activity of everybody in one’s work, stimulates the unfolding of reason and enables mortals to give expression to one’s inner needs in collective art and rituals. #RandolphHarris 9 of 15

Another characteristic of modern people is loneliness. They describe this feeling as one being on the outside, isolated, or, if they are sophisticated, they say that they feel alienated. They emphasize how crucial it is for them to be invited to this part or that dinner, not because they especially want to go (though they generally do go) nor because they will get enjoyment, companionship, sharing of experience and human warmth in gathering (very often they do not, but are simply bored). Rather, being invited is crucial because it is a proof that they are not alone. Loneliness is such an omnipotent and painful threat to many persons that they have little conception of the beneficial values of solitude, and even at times are very frightened at the prospect of being alone. Many people suffer from the fear of finding oneself alone, and so they do not find themselves at all. The feeling of emptiness and loneliness go together. When persons, for example, are telling of a break-up in a love relationship, they will often not say they feel sorrow or humiliation over a lost conquest; but rather that they feel emptied. The loss of the other leaves an inner yawning void. #RandolphHarris 10 of 15

The reasons for the close relationship between loneliness and emptiness are not difficult to discover. For when a person does not know with any inner conviction what one wants or what one feels; when, in a period of traumatic change, one comes aware of the fact that the conventional desires and goals one has been taught to follow no longer bring one any security or give one any sense of direction, when, that is, one feels an inner void while one stands amid the outer confusion of upheaval in one’s society, one senses danger; and one’s natural reaction is to look around for other people. They, one hopes, will give one some sense of direction, or at least some comfort in the knowledge that one is not alone in one’s fright. Emptiness and loneliness are thus two phases of the same basic experience of anxiety. Some people feel like we might be the last generation to walk this Earth—but do not know in which direction to turn. And because of their, their reaction is, strangely enough, a sudden, deep, loneliness. All of mortal’s history is an endeavor to shatter one’s seclusion. Feelings of isolation occur when one feels empty and afraid not simply because one wants to be protected by the crowd. Nor is the longing for others simply an endeavor to fill the void within one’s self—though this certainly is one side of the need for human companionship when one feels empty or anxious. #RandolphHarris 11 of 15

The more basic reason is that the human being gets one’s original experience of being a self out of one’s relatedness to other persons, and when one is alone, without other persons, one is afraid one will lose this experience of being a self. Mortals, the biosocial mammal, not only is dependent on other human beings such as one’s father and mother for one’s security during a long childhood; one like wise receives one’s consciousness of oneself, which is the basis of one’s capacity to orient oneself in life, from these early relationships. Therefore, it is clear to see that mortals need relationships with other people in order to orient themselves. Angels boring? Yes—until they fall! Then the Angel takes on fascination and interest. The dichotomy between devils and Angles was carried on through the Middle Ages, and the word for the diammonic is now clearly demon. The medieval citizens were enthralled by their demons. The medieval citizens were enthralled by their demons, even in the act of condemning them; why else all these gargoyles, beasts laughing and looking sinister, animals of every sort, scampering and climbing up the sides of their cathedrals and Victorian houses, carved in stone by artisans who must have known the daimonic at first hand? However, this did not stand in the way of their using this handy method of condemnation of their enemies as the devil’s party in their wars of religion and particularly in the Albigensian uprising. #RandolphHarris 12 of 15

It seems that it is always mortal’s proclivity to define the outsider, the stranger, the one who differs from one, as the evil one and oneself as on the side of the angel. However, one who enters the sphere of faith enters the sanctuary of life. Where there is faith there is an awareness of holiness. One now becomes gifted with some supernatural power: one has had genius, or even one oneself is a genius. One’s acts do not conform to the norms of accepted behavior, but also one’s work has a superhuman quality that makes it incomparable with the work of other mortals. Therefore the usual categories of good and evil, of useful and useless, do not apply to the genius. What one does and what one suffers is one’s fate. One is not a genius because one is an extraordinary artist, but conversely, one is an artist become one is possessed by genius. Fate guides one to significant meetings and it produces great mortals. To see the experiential justification for this point we have only to recall that greatness consists of being in the right place at the right time; it is an encounter between a mortal of particular qualities and the particular needs of an age. Mortals with talent are seized by the historical situation and hurled to greatness. What concerns one ultimately becomes holy. The awareness of the holy is awareness of the presence of the divine, namely of the content of our supreme concern. #RandolphHarris 13 of 15

Faith’s presence remains mysterious in spite of its appearance. It is discovered in Nature, animate and inanimate, with soul and without soul, something which was only manifested in contradiction, and therefore cannot be grasped under one conception, still less under one word. Only in the impossible did it seem to find pleasure, and the possible it seemed to thrust from itself with contempt. The ancients become aware of something similar. Faith can manifest itself in the most remarkable way even in some animals, it primarily is connected with mortals. It represents a power which is, if not opposed to the moral order of the World, yet at cross-purposes to it; such that one could compare the one to the warp, and the other to the woof. In the most awesome form faith appears when it manifests itself in some human beings. They are not always mortals of superior mind or talents, seldom do they recommend themselves by the goodness of their heart. Yet a tremendous power emanates from them, they possess an incredible force over all other creatures and even over the elements; nobody can say how far their influence will reach. #RandolphHarris 14 of 15

The reason for these effects of the holy is obvious if we see the relation of the experience of the holy to the experience of the ultimate concern. The human hearts seeks the infinite because that is where the finite wants to rest. In the infinite it sees its own fulfillment. This is the reason for the ecstatic attraction and fascination of everything in which ultimacy is manifest. On the other hand, if ultimacy is manifest and exercises its fascinating attraction, one realizes at the same time the infinite distance of the finite from the infinite and, consequently, the negative judgment over any finite attempts to reach the infinite. The feeling of being consumed in the presence of the divine is a profound expression of mortal’s relation to the holy. It is implied in every genuine act of faith, in every state of ultimate concern. Entering the sanctuary means encountering the holy. Here the infinitely removed makes itself near and present, without losing its remoteness. For this reason, the holy has been called the entirely other, namely, other than the ordinary course of things or other than the World which is determined by the cleavage of subject and object. The holy transcends this realm; this is its mystery and its unapproachable character. There is no conditional way of reaching the unconditional; there is no finite way of reaching the infinite. #RandolphHarris 15 of 15